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Family Structure and the Education Gender Gap: Evidence from Italian Provinces

  • Graziella Bertocchi
  • Monica Bozzano

We investigate the determinants of the education gender gap in Italy in historical perspective with a focus on the influence of family structure. We capture the latter with two indicators: residential habits (nuclear vs. complex families) and inheritance rules (partition vs. primogeniture). After controlling for economic, institutional, religious, and cultural factors, we find that family structure is a driver of the education gender gap, with a higher female to male enrollment rate ratio in upper primary schools being associated with nuclear residential habits and equal partition of inheritance. The effect tends to persist through the present day.

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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 4460.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_4460
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  1. Graziella Bertocchi & Marianna Brunetti & Costanza Torricelli, 2012. "Is it money or brains? The determinants of intra-family decision power," Department of Economics 0686, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
  2. Graziella Bertocchi, 2008. "The Enfranchisement of Women and the Welfare State," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 018, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics "Marco Biagi".
  3. Tine De Moor & Jan Luiten Van Zanden, 2010. "Girl power: the European marriage pattern and labour markets in the North Sea region in the late medieval and early modern period -super-1," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 63(1), pages 1-33, 02.
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  6. Becker, Sascha O. & Wößmann, Ludger, 2008. "Luther and the girls: Religious denomination and the female education gap in nineteenth-century Prussia," Munich Reprints in Economics 20256, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  7. Carlo Ciccarelli & Stefano Fenoaltea, 2010. "Through the magnifying glass: provincial aspects of industrial growth in post-unification Italy," Quaderni di storia economica (Economic History Working Papers) 4, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  8. Enrico Spolaore & Romain Wacziarg, 2013. "How Deep Are the Roots of Economic Development?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 51(2), pages 325-69, June.
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  11. Oded Galor & David N. Weil, 1993. "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth," NBER Working Papers 4550, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Yann Algan & Pierre Cahuc, 2004. "Job protection: the Macho Hypothesis?," Sciences Po publications 1192, Sciences Po.
  13. Graziella Bertocchi & Monica Bozzano, 2013. "Women, Medieval Commerce, and the Education Gender Gap," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 088, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics "Marco Biagi".
  14. Foreman-Peck, James, 2009. "The Western European Marriage Pattern and Economic Development," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2009/15, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  15. Monica Bozzano, 2014. "Assessing Gender Inequality among Italian Regions: The Italian Gender Gap Index," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, issue 1, pages 255-300, January-M.
  16. Gary S. Becker & Robert J. Barro, . "A Reformulation of the Economic Theory of Fertility," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 85-11, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  17. Vincenzo Galasso & Paola Profeta, 2012. "When the State Mirrors the Family: The Design of Pension Systems," Economics Working Paper from Condorcet Center for political Economy at CREM-CNRS 2012-04-ccr, Condorcet Center for political Economy.
  18. Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2006. "The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap," NBER Working Papers 12139, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Alesina, Alberto & Giuliano, Paola, 2007. "The Power of the Family," IZA Discussion Papers 2750, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. Gilles Duranton & Andrés Rodríguez-Pose & Richard Sandall, 2008. "Family types and the persistence of regional disparities in Europe," Working Papers 2008-07, Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA) Ciencias Sociales.
  21. Brian A'Hearn & Franco Peracchi & Giovanni Vecchi, 2008. "Height and the normal distribution: Evidence from Italian military data," CEIS Research Paper 124, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 14 Jul 2008.
  22. Avner Greif & Guido Tabellini, 2012. "The Clan and the City: Sustaining Cooperation in China and Europe," Working Papers 445, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  23. Alberto Alesina & Paola Giuliano & Nathan Nunn, 2013. "On the Origins of Gender Roles: Women and the Plough," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 128(2), pages 469-530.
  24. Goldin, Claudia, 1998. "America's Graduation from High School: The Evolution and Spread of Secondary Schooling in the Twentieth Century," Scholarly Articles 2664307, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  25. Selin Dilli & Auke Rijpma & Sarah Carmichael, 2013. "Development versus Legacy: The Relative Role of Development and Historical Legacies in Achieving Gender Equality," CESifo Working Paper Series 4411, CESifo Group Munich.
  26. Duflo, Esther, 2012. "Women's Empowerment and Economic Development," CEPR Discussion Papers 8734, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  27. repec:mod:depeco:0007 is not listed on IDEAS
  28. Graziella Bertocchi, 2006. "The Law of Primogeniture and the Transition from Landed Aristocracy to Industrial Democracy," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 43-70, 03.
  29. Tracy Dennison & Sheilagh Ogilvie, 2013. "Does the European Marriage Pattern Explain Economic Growth," CESifo Working Paper Series 4244, CESifo Group Munich.
  30. Becker, Sascha & Woessmann, Ludger, 2008. "Luther and the Girls: Religious Denomination and the Female Education Gap in 19th Century Prussia," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers 2008-20, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
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