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El mercado laboral de los inmigrantes y no inmigrantes. Evidencia de la crisis venezolana de refugiados

Author

Listed:
  • Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

  • Leonardo Fabio Morales

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

  • Didier Hermida-Giraldo

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

  • Luz A. Flórez

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

Abstract

Following Venezuela’s economic collapse, millions have fled the country. This paper assesses the impact of this phenomenon on the labor market outcomes of immigrants and non-immigrants in Colombia, the major recipient of refugees. We address potential endogeneity problems using an instrumental variable approach that exploits the regional variation of migrant networks and the timing and intensity of the Venezuelan economic crisis. Migration flows increase unemployment among immigrants, but have no significant effect on nonimmigrants, partly because immigration significantly reduces labor participation, offsetting the negative impact on employment. Employment losses among non-immigrants are mostly driven by self-employed workers and are consistently larger for female, young, and low-skill individuals. The effect on immigrants is mostly driven by foreign immigrants, as the impact on returnees is smaller in magnitude and significance. We also find sizeable negative effects on internal migrants’ labor outcomes and changes in internal migration flows. **** RESUMEN: Debido al colapso económico de Venezuela millones de personas han abandonado el país. Este artículo evalúa el impacto de este fenómeno sobre los indicadores del mercado laboral de los inmigrantes y no inmigrantes en Colombia, el mayor receptor de refugiados desde Venezuela. Abordamos los potenciales problemas de endogeneidad utilizando un enfoque que variables instrumentales, que aprovecha la variación regional de inmigrantes y el periodo e intensidad de la crisis económica de Venezuela. Los resultados sugieren que el flujo migratorio incrementa el desempleo entre los inmigrantes, pero no tiene efectos significativos sobre los no inmigrantes, en parte porque la inmigración reduce significativamente la participación laboral, compensando el efecto negativo sobre el empleo. Las pérdidas de empleo entre los no inmigrantes se deben, principalmente, a los trabajadores por cuenta propia y, en general, son más pronunciadas para las mujeres, los jóvenes y los individuos con baja calificación laboral. El efecto sobre los inmigrantes es impulsado, en gran medida, por los inmigrantes no retornados, el impacto en los retornados, por el contrario, es pequeño en magnitud y significancia. También encontramos un efecto negativo sobre los inmigrantes internos y cambios en los flujos migratorios internos de Colombia.

Suggested Citation

  • Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía & Leonardo Fabio Morales & Didier Hermida-Giraldo & Luz A. Flórez, 2020. "El mercado laboral de los inmigrantes y no inmigrantes. Evidencia de la crisis venezolana de refugiados," Borradores de Economia 1119, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:1119
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.32468/be.1119
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Migración internacional; mercados laborales; capital humano; Colombia; International migration; labor markets; human capital; Colombia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • J0 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General

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