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Bartik Instruments: What, When, Why, and How

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Listed:
  • Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham
  • Isaac Sorkin
  • Henry Swift

Abstract

The Bartik instrument is formed by interacting local industry shares and national industry growth rates. We show that the typical use of a Bartik instrument assumes a pooled exposure research design, where the shares measure differential exposure to common shocks, and identification is based on exogeneity of the shares. Next, we show how the Bartik instrument weights each of the exposure designs. Finally, we discuss how to assess the plausibility of the research design. We illustrate our results through three applications: estimating the elasticity of labor supply, estimating local labor market effects of Chinese imports, and estimating the elasticity of substitution between immigrants and natives.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham & Isaac Sorkin & Henry Swift, 2018. "Bartik Instruments: What, When, Why, and How," NBER Working Papers 24408, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:24408
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jaeger, David A & Ruist, Joakim & Stuhler, Jan, 2018. "Shift-Share Instruments and the Impact of Immigration," CEPR Discussion Papers 12701, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    7. Timothy J. Bartik, 1991. "Who Benefits from State and Local Economic Development Policies?," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number wbsle, December.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
    • C18 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Methodolical Issues: General
    • C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
    • J0 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor

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