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The Heterogeneous Labor Market Effects of the Venezuelan Exodus on Female Workers: Evidence from Colombia


  • Andrea Otero-Cortés
  • Tribín-Uribe, Ana María
  • Mojica, Tatiana


We study the labor market effects of the Venezuelan migration shock on female labor market outcomes in Colombia using a Bartik-instrument approach.For our identification strategy we leverage regional variation from pull factors and time variation from push factors. Our findings show that in the labor market, female immigrants can act as substitutes or complements for native-born women depending on native women’s education level; immigrant workers are substitutes in the labor market for native-born low-educated women as they compete for similar jobs. Hence, the low-educated native women’s labor force participation decreases. At the same time, time spent doing unpaid care increases for low-educated native women, possibly further preventing the job search for this group. On the other hand, we find an increase in labor force participation of 1.6 p.p. for highly educated women with minors at home and a 1 p.p. higher likelihood of becoming entrepreneurs due to the migratory shock, which supports the complementary-skill hypothesis. Finally, we don’t find evidence that the migratory shock induced households to outsource more home-production as a means for high-educated women to spend more time at paid work. **** RESUMEN: En este documento estudiamos los efectos que el choque migratorio venezolano tuvo sobre el mercado laboral y uso del tiempo para las mujeres de Colombia utilizando la metodología de instrumentos tipo Bartik. Para esto, usamos variación regional de un factor de atracción de migración, como lo son las redes migratorias previamente establecidas en cada ciudad receptora, y la variación temporal del IPC venezolano como factor de empuje de la migración para nuestra estrategia de identificación. Los resultados muestran que, en el mercado laboral, las mujeres migrantes pueden actuar como sustitutas o complementarias de las nativas dependiendo de la educación de estas últimas. Las trabajadoras inmigrantes son sustitutas en el mercado laboral de las mujeres nativas con baja escolaridad porque compiten por puestos de trabajo similares. Por lo tanto, la participación laboral disminuye para las mujeres nativas con bajo nivel educativo como consecuencia del choque migratorio y también aumenta el tiempo destinado al trabajo no remunerado, lo que posiblemente impide aún más la búsqueda de empleo para este grupo. De otra parte, encontramos que hay un aumento de la participación laboral de 1,6 p.p. para las mujeres con alta escolaridad y que viven con niños y niñas menores de 5 años en el hogar y una mayor probabilidad de convertirse en emprendedoras, lo que apoya la hipótesis de la complementariedad de las habilidades entre migrantes y nativas con alta escolaridad. Contrario a lo que ocurre en países desarrollados ante choques migratorios, no encontramos evidencia de que los hogares nativos contraten en mayor proporción mujeres migrantes para realizar trabajo domestico para facilitar que las mujeres con nivel alto educación dediquen más horas al trabajo remunerado.

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  • Andrea Otero-Cortés & Tribín-Uribe, Ana María & Mojica, Tatiana, 2022. "The Heterogeneous Labor Market Effects of the Venezuelan Exodus on Female Workers: Evidence from Colombia," Documentos de trabajo sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 311, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:region:311
    DOI: 10.32468/dtseru.311

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    Migration; Female labor market outcomes; Care economy; Entrepreneurship; Migración; Mercado laboral femenino; Economía del cuidado; Emprendimiento;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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