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Publications

by members of

Institute of Business Administration
Karachi, Pakistan

These are publications listed in RePEc written by members of the above institution who are registered with the RePEc Author Service. Thus this compiles the works all those currently affiliated with this institutions, not those affilated at the time of publication. List of registered members. Register yourself. This page is updated in the first days of each month.
| Working papers | Journal articles |

Working papers

2015

  1. Hafeez, Fatima & Haider, Adnan & Zafar, Naeem uz, 2015. "Impact of public-private-partnership programs on students’ learning outcomes: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment," MPRA Paper 73070, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Aug 2016.

2014

  1. Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali & Raza, Muhammad Ali, 2014. "Nutritional Status of Children in Bangladesh:Measuring Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) and its Determinants," MPRA Paper 66550, University Library of Munich, Germany.

2013

  1. Jahan, Sumbul, 2013. "Does Convergence Exist?," MPRA Paper 48836, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali & Raza, Muhammad Ali, 2013. "Maternal Health Care: The Case of Iron Supplementation in India," MPRA Paper 66555, University Library of Munich, Germany.

2012

  1. Ahmed, Waqas & Haider, Adnan & Iqbal, Javed, 2012. "Estimation of discount factor (beta) and coefficient of relative risk aversion (gamma) in selected countries," MPRA Paper 39736, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Qayyum, Unbreen & Musleh ud, Din & Haider, Adnan, 2012. "Foreign Aid, External Debt and Governance," MPRA Paper 40260, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Haider, Adnan & Din, Musleh-ud & Ghani, Ejaz, 2012. "Monetary policy, informality and business cycle fluctuations in a developing economy vulnerable to external shocks," MPRA Paper 42484, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Haider, Adnan & Jan, Asad & Hyder, Kalim, 2012. "On the (IR) Relevance of Monetary Aggregate Targeting in Pakistan: An Eclectic View," MPRA Paper 43422, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Waqas Ahmed & Adnan Haider & Javed Iqbal, 2012. "Estimation of Discount Factor and Coefficient of Relative Risk Aversion in Selected Countries," SBP Working Paper Series 53, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department.
  6. Asma Hyder & Jere R. Behrman & Hans-Peter Kohler, 2012. "Negative Economic Shocks and Child Schooling: Evidence from Rural Malawi," PIER Working Paper Archive 12-039, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  7. Degryse, Hans & Elahi, Muhammad Ather & Penas, Maria Fabiana, 2012. "Determinants of Banking System Fragility: A Regional Perspective," CEPR Discussion Papers 8858, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

2011

  1. Haider, Adnan & Din, Musleh ud & Ghani, Ejaz, 2011. "Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35584, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Asma Hyder & Jere R. Behrman, 2011. "Schooling is Associated Not Only with Long-Run Wages, But Also with Wage Risks and Disability Risks: The Pakistani Experience," PIER Working Paper Archive 11-013, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.

2010

  1. Gulzar, Ahmed & Junaid, Novaira & Haider, Adnan, 2010. "What is Hidden, in the Hidden Economy of Pakistan? Size, Causes, Issues and Implications," MPRA Paper 28571, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Dec 2010.

2009

  1. Siddiqui, Danish Ahmed & Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2009. "Institutions and Economic Growth: A Cross country Evidence," MPRA Paper 19747, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Siddiqui, Danish Ahmed & Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2009. "The Causal Relationship between Institutions and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation for Pakistan Economy," MPRA Paper 19745, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Siddiqui, Danish Ahmed & Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2009. "Does Institutions effect growth in Pakistan? An Empirical investigation," MPRA Paper 19744, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Siddiqui, Danish Ahmed & Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2009. "Institutionalized Social Technologies Index: A Global Perspective," MPRA Paper 19746, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Asma, Hyder & Javaid, Zainab, 2009. "Impact of Training on Earnings: Evidence from Pakistani Industries," MPRA Paper 19570, University Library of Munich, Germany.

2008

  1. Ali Choudhary & Adnan Haider, 2008. "Neural Network Models for Inflation Forecasting: An Appraisal," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0808, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
  2. Haider, Adnan & Khan, Safdar Ullah, 2008. "A Small Open Economy DSGE Model for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 12977, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Jan 2009.
  3. S. Adnan H. A. S., Bukhari & Safdar Ullah, Khan, 2008. "Estimating Output Gap for Pakistan Economy:Structural and Statistical Approaches," MPRA Paper 9736, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Jun 2008.
  4. Abdul Qayyum & Idrees Khawaja & Asma Hyder, 2008. "Growth Diagnostics in Pakistan," Development Economics Working Papers 22218, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  5. Asma, Hyder, 2008. "The Effects of Relocation on Wages: A Decomposition Analysis," MPRA Paper 19571, University Library of Munich, Germany.

2007

  1. Siddiqui, Danish Ahmed & Ahmad, Mohsin Hasnain, 2007. "The Causal Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Current Account: An Empirical Investigation for Pakistan Economy," MPRA Paper 19743, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Haider, Adnan & Hanif, Muhammad Nadeem, 2007. "Inflation Forecasting in Pakistan using Artificial Neural Networks," MPRA Paper 14645, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Hyder, Asma, 2007. "Wage Differentials, Rate of Return toEducation, and Occupational WageShare in the Labour Market of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Asma Hyder, 2007. "Preference for Public Sector Jobs and Wait Unemployment : A Micro Data Analysis," Labor Economics Working Papers 22196, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  5. Khan, Abdul Aleem & Ahmed, Qazi Masood & Hyder, Kalim, 2007. "Determinants oF Recent Inflation in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 16254, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2007.
  6. Ahmed, Qazi Masood & Hyder, Kalim, 2007. "Determinants of Total Factor Productivity in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 16253, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jun 2007.
  7. Nasir Afghan & Tayyaba Wiqar, 2007. "Succession in Family Businesses of Pakistan : Kinship Culture and Islamic Inheritance Law," Microeconomics Working Papers 22242, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.

2006

  1. Haider, Adnan & Butt, M. Sabihuddin, 2006. "The Direction of Causality between Health Spending and GDP: The Case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 23379, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Dec 2006.
  2. Hussain, M. Haider & Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2006. "Estimating the Black Economy through Monetary Approach: A Case Study of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 8153, University Library of Munich, Germany.

2005

  1. Haider, Adnan, 2005. "Using Genetic Algorithms to Develop Strategies for the Prisoners Dilemma," MPRA Paper 28574, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Apr 2006.
  2. Asma Hyder & Barry Reilly, 2005. "The Public Sector Pay Gap in Pakistan: A Quantile Regression Analysis," PRUS Working Papers 33, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.

2003

  1. Hyder, Kalim & Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2003. "Why Private Investment In Pakistan Has Collapsed And How It Can Be Restored," MPRA Paper 16251, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Jan 2004.

Journal articles

2017

  1. Adnan Haider & Asim Jahangir, 2017. "La Familia - How Trust Towards Family Decreases Female Labor Force Participation," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 122-144, March.

2016

  1. Naved Ahmad & Salman Arjumand, 2016. "Impact of corruption on GDP per capita through international migration: an empirical investigation," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 1633-1643, July.
  2. Syed Hasanat Shah & Mohsin Hasnain Ahmad & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2016. "The nexus between sectoral FDI and institutional quality: empirical evidence from Pakistan," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(17), pages 1591-1601, April.
  3. Syed Ammad Ali & Qazi Masood Ahmed & Lubna Naz, 2016. "Public spending on human capital formation and economic growth in Pakistan," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 23(1), pages 1-20, June.
  4. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Muhammad Ali Raza, 2016. "Determinants of malnutrition in Indian children: new evidence from IDHS through CIAF," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 299-316, January.
  5. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Muhammad Ali Raza, 2016. "Utilization of prenatal-care in India: an evidence from IDHS," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 18(1), pages 175-201, October.

2015

  1. Asma Hyder & Jere R Behrman & Hans-Peter Kohler, 2015. "Negative economic shocks and child schooling: Evidence from rural Malawi," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(4), pages 458-476, July.
  2. Syed Kalim Hyder & Qazi Masood Ahmed & Haroon Jamal, 2015. "Simulating the Impact of Income Distribution on Poverty Reduction," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 931-944.
  3. Tasnim Khan & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Muhammad Ali Raza, 2015. "Gender Analysis of Malnutrition: A Case Study of School-Going Children in Bahawalpur," Asian Development Policy Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 3(2), pages 29-48, June.

2014

  1. Qayyum, Unbreen & Din, Musleh-ud & Haider, Adnan, 2014. "Foreign aid, external debt and governance," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 41-52.
  2. Adnan Haider & Qazi Masood Ahmed & Zohaib Jawed, 2014. "Determinants of Energy Inflation in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 53(4), pages 491-504.
  3. Mohsin Hasnain Ahmad & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2014. "Does the Institutional Quality Matter to Attract the Foreign Direct Investment? An Empirical Investigation for Pakistan," South Asia Economic Journal, Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka, vol. 15(1), pages 55-70, March.
  4. Syed Ammad & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2014. "Dynamic Effects of Energy Sector Public Investment on Sectoral Economic Growth: Experience from Pakistan Economy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 53(4), pages 403-421.
  5. Rana Khan & Muhammad Raza, 2014. "Child malnutrition in developing economies: a case study of Bangladesh," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 1389-1408, May.

2013

  1. Siddiqui, Danish Ahmed & Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2013. "The effect of institutions on economic growth: A global analysis based on GMM dynamic panel estimation," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 18-33.
  2. Adnan Haider & Asad Jan & Kalim Hyder, 2013. "On the (Ir)Relevance of Monetary Aggregate Targeting in Pakistan: An Eclectic View," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(2), pages 65-119, July-Dec.
  3. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Muhammad Ali Raza, 2013. "Maternal Health-Care in India: The Case of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination," Asian Development Policy Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 1(1), pages 1-14, December.

2012

  1. M. Ali Choudhary & Adnan Haider, 2012. "Neural network models for inflation forecasting: an appraisal," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(20), pages 2631-2635, July.
  2. Unbreen Qayyum & Adnan Haider, 2012. "Foreign Aid, External Debt and Economic Growth Nexus in Low-Income Countries: The Role of Institutional Quality," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(4), pages 97-116.
  3. Adnan Haider & Musleh ud Din & Ejaz Ghani, 2012. "Monetary Policy, Informality and Business Cycle Fluctuations in a Developing Economy Vulnerable to External Shocks," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(4), pages 609-681.
  4. Alam, Shaista & Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2012. "Exchange Rate Volatility and Aggregate Exports Demand through ARDL Framework: An Experience from Pakistan Economy," Review of Applied Economics, Review of Applied Economics, vol. 8(1).

2011

  1. Adnan Haider & Musleh ud Din & Ejaz Ghani, 2011. "Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 50(4), pages 773-807.
  2. Asma Hyder & Jere R. Behrman, 2011. "Schooling is Associated not only with Longrun Wages, but also with Wage Risks and Disability Risks: The Pakistani Experience," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 50(4), pages 555-573.

2010

  1. Ahmed Gulzar & Novaira Junaid & Adnan Haider, 2010. "What is Hidden in the Hidden Economy of Pakistan? Size, Causes, Issues, and Implications," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 665-704.
  2. Shahid Ali & Naved Ahmad, 2010. "The Effects of Fiscal Policy on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidences Based on Time Series Data from Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 497-512.
  3. Naved Ahmad & Shahid Ali, 2010. "Corruption and financial sector performance: A cross-country analysis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(1), pages 303-308.
  4. Hans Degryse & Muhammad Ather Elahi & Maria Fabiana Penas, 2010. "Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 10(Financial), pages 209-240.

2009

  1. Adnan Haider & Drissi Ramzi, 2009. "Nominal Frictions and Optimal Monetary Policy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 48(4), pages 525-551.
  2. Asma Hyder & Ather Maqsood Ahmed, 2009. "The Dynamics of Moonlighting in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 48(4), pages 497-507.
  3. Qazi Masood Ahmed & Akhtar Lodhi, 2009. "Inter-Governmental Funds Flows in Pakistan: Are they Reducing Poverty?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 48(4), pages 703-714.

2008

  1. Adnan Haider Bukhari & Safdar Ullah Khan, 2008. "A Small Open Economy DSGE Model for Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 963-1008.
  2. S. Adnan H. A. S. Bukhari & Safdar Ullah Khan, 2008. "Estimating Output Gap for Pakistan Economy: Structural and Statistical Approaches," SBP Research Bulletin, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department, vol. 4, pages 31-60.
  3. Ather Maqssod Ahmed & Asma Hyder, 2008. "Sticky Floors and Occupational Segregation: Evidence from Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 837-849.
  4. Naved Ahmad, 2008. "Corrupt clubs and the convergence hypothesis," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 21-28.
  5. Qazi Masood Ahmed & Akhtar Lodhi, 2008. "Provincial Finance Commission: Options for Fiscal Transfers," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 747-762.
  6. Q M Ahmed & M Haider Hussain, 2008. "Estimating the Black Economy through a Monetary Approach: A Case Study of Pakistan," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 13(1), pages 45-60, March.

2007

  1. Asma Hyder, 2007. "Employment Preferences and Length of Job Queues in Pakistan," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 1(4), pages 383-401, December.
  2. Muhammad Shahbaz Akmal & Qazi Masood Ahmad & Mohsin Hussain Ahmad & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2007. "An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction: A Case for Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 12(1), pages 99-118, Jan-Jun.

2006

  1. Naved Ahmad & Fareed Ahmed, 2006. "The Long-run and Short-run Endogeneity of Money Supply in Pakistan: An Empirical Investigation," SBP Research Bulletin, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department, vol. 2, pages 267-278..

2005

  1. Haroon Jamal & Amir Jahan Khan, 2005. "The Knowledge Divide: Education Inequality in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 10(1), pages 83-104, Jan-Jun.
  2. Haroon Jamal & Amir Jahan Khan, 2005. "Impact of Ownership and Concentration of Land on Schooling," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 10(2), pages 1-14, Jul-Dec.
  3. Asma Hyder & Barry Reilly, 2005. "The Public and Private Sector Pay Gap in Pakistan: A Quantile Regression Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(3), pages 271-306.
  4. Naved Ahmad, 2005. "Governance, Globalisation, and Human Development in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 585-594.
  5. Asad Jan & Ather Elahi & M. A. Zahid, 2005. "Managing Foreign Exchange Inflows: An Analysis of Sterilisation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 777-792.

2004

  1. Naved Ahmad & Oscar Brookins, 2004. "On Corruption and Countervailing Actions in Three South Asian Nations," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 21-30.
  2. Abdul Aleem Khan & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2004. "Agricultural Terms of Trade in Pakistan: Issues of Profitability and Standard of Living of the Farmers," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(4), pages 515-537.
  3. Kalim Hyder & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2004. "Why Private Investment In Pakistan Has Collapsed And How It Can Be Restored," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 9(1), pages 107-125, Jan-June.

2003

  1. Haroon Jamal & Amir Jahan Khan & Imran Ashraf Toor & Naveed Amir, 2003. "Mapping the Spatial Deprivation of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 91-111.
  2. Haroon Jamal & Amir Jahan Khan, 2003. "The Changing Profile of Regional Inequality," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 113-123.
  3. Qazi Masood Ahmed & Muhammad Sabir, 2003. "The Burden of Stabilisation on Provinces and its Implications for the Social Sectors," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 783-791.
  4. Zahir Shah & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2003. "The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan: an Empirical Investigation," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 697-714.

2002

  1. Zahir Shah & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2002. "Measurement of Cost of Capital for Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan: A Neoclassical Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 807-823.
  2. Mohsin Hasnain Ahmad & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2002. "Foreign Capital Inflows and Domestic Savings in Pakistan: Cointegration Techniques and Error Correction Modelling," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 825-836.

2001

  1. Naved Ahmad, 2001. "Corruption Perception Indices: A Comparative Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 813-830.
  2. Mahnaz Fatima & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2001. "Political Economy of Fiscal Reforms in the 1990s," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 503-518.
  3. Kaiser Bengali & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2001. "Stabilisation Policy vs. Growth-oriented Policy: Implication for the Pakistan Economy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 453-466.
  4. Ahmed, Qazi Masood, 2001. "A test of relative efficacy of tax expenditures and direct expenditures: A neo-classical approach," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 477-489, August.

2000

  1. Qazi Masood Ahmed & Mohammad Sabihuddin Butt & Shaista Alam, 2000. "Economic Growth, Export, and External Debt Causality: The Case of Asian Countries," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 591-608.

1997

  1. Qazi Masood Ahmed & S. Moquet Ahsan, 1997. "Tax Concessions and Investment Behaviour," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 537-562.

1995

  1. Mohammad Aslam Chaudhary & Naved Ahmad, 1995. "Money Supply, Deficit, and Inflation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 34(4), pages 945-956.
  2. Mehnaz Ahmed & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 1995. "Estimation of the Black Economy of Pakistan through the Monetary Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 34(4), pages 791-807.

1994

  1. Qazi Masood Ahmed, 1994. "The Determinants of Tax Buoyancy: An Experience from the Developing Countries," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 1089-1098.

1991

  1. M. Aynul Hasan & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 1991. "Endogeneity of Monetary Policy Reaction Function: An Experience from Pakistan's Economy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 30(4), pages 931-941.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.