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An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction: A Case for Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Muhammad Shahbaz Akmal

    () (Corresponding Author/Research Officer at Social Policy and Development Center, Karachi, Pakistan.)

  • Qazi Masood Ahmad

    () (University of Karachi, Pakistan.)

  • Mohsin Hussain Ahmad

    () (University of Karachi, Pakistan.)

  • Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt

    () (University of Karachi, Pakistan.)

Abstract

In this paper, we have addressed a key issue in the current debate on economic development: the effect of trade liberalization on poverty. We investigated the relationship between trade liberalization and poverty levels both in the long run as well as in the short run for Pakistan. To measure trade liberalization, we used standard indices of trade openness, financial openness and public intervention in the country, while the head-count ratio was used for poverty measurement, and GDP per capita controlled for economic growth. Applying the Johansen Co-integration Techniques and Error Correction Method, for long-run and short-run analyses respectively, our findings suggest that trade liberalization has a cumulative effect on poverty reduction in the long-run but not in the short run in Pakistan. Lower poverty is associated with low taxation and high foreign direct investment, while trade openness does not have a significant impact on poverty reduction, particularly in the short run, in Pakistan.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Shahbaz Akmal & Qazi Masood Ahmad & Mohsin Hussain Ahmad & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2007. "An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction: A Case for Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 12(1), pages 99-118, Jan-Jun.
  • Handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:12:y:2007:i:1:p:99-118
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lee, Jong-Wha, 1996. "Government Interventions and Productivity Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 391-414, September.
    2. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2002. "Growth Is Good for the Poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 195-225, September.
    3. By Gunnar Jonsson & Arvind Subramanian, 2001. "Dynamic Gains from Trade: Evidence from South Africa," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 48(1), pages 1-8.
    4. L. ALAN WINTERS & NEIL McCULLOCH & ANDREW McKAY, 2015. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty: The Evidence So Far," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Non-Tariff Barriers, Regionalism and Poverty Essays in Applied International Trade Analysis, chapter 14, pages 271-314 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 1996. "Foundations of International Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262150476, January.
    6. Reint Gropp & Liam P. Ebrill & Janet Gale Stotsky, 1999. "Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization," IMF Occasional Papers 180, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Gaurav Datt & Martin Ravallion, 1998. "Farm productivity and rural poverty in India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(4), pages 62-85.
    8. Chakrabarti, Avik, 2001. "The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: Sensitivity Analyses of Cross-Country Regressions," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(1), pages 89-113.
    9. Rod Falvey, 1994. "Revenue enhancing tariff reform," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 130(1), pages 175-190, March.
    10. David Bevan, 1995. "Fiscal Implications of Trade Liberalization," IMF Working Papers 95/50, International Monetary Fund.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Faridul, Islam & Muhammad Sabihuddin, Butt, 2011. "Devaluation and income inequality: Evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35522, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Dec 2011.
    2. Fatima, Amber & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Islam, Faridul, 2012. "Nexus of Trade, Investment and Poverty: Evidence from Pakistan," Bangladesh Development Studies, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), vol. 35(2), pages 87-108, June.
    3. Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam, 2011. "Financial Development And Income Inequality In Pakistan: An Application Of Ardl Approach," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 35-58, March.
    4. Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2013. "Devaluation and Income Inequality Nexus: Evidence from Pakistan," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(4), pages 48-58, April.
    5. James Nyarkoh, Bright, 2017. "Modelling Trade Liberalisation-Poverty Nexus for Ghana," MPRA Paper 76209, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trade; Liberalization; Poverty;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being

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