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Financial development and income inequality in Pakistan: An application of ARDL approach

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  • Shahbaz, Muhammad
  • Islam, Faridul

Abstract

The paper examines the relationship between financial development and income inequality; and also explores if the Greenwood and Jovianvich (GJ) hypothesis applies to Pakistan. Using data from 1971 to 2005, the paper implements the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration to examine the existence of long run; and the error correction model (ECM) for the short run relationships. Stationarity properties of the series are checked by the ADF method. The findings indicate that financial development reduces income inequality while financial instability aggravates it. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, we find economic growth worsens income distribution and that the latter is deteriorated further by trade openness. The paper does not find support for the GJ relation. Appropriate reforms aimed at developing a well-organized financial sector in Pakistan can help reduce income inequality.

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  • Shahbaz, Muhammad & Islam, Faridul, 2011. "Financial development and income inequality in Pakistan: An application of ARDL approach," MPRA Paper 28222, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:28222
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    Cited by:

    1. Gila-Gourgoura, E. & Nikolaidou, E., 2017. "Credit Risk Determinants in the Vulnerable Economies of Europe: Evidence from the Spanish Banking System," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 10(1), pages 60-71, March.
    2. Aviral Kumar Tiwari & Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam, 2013. "Does financial development increase rural-urban income inequality?: Cointegration analysis in the case of Indian economy," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(2), pages 151-168, January.
    3. Abu N. M. Wahid & Muhammad Shahbaz & Pervaz Azim, 2011. "Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 1(4), pages 145-152.
    4. Kaidi Nasreddine & Sami Mensi, 2016. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: The Linear versus the Nonlinear Hypothesis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(2), pages 609-626.
    5. Rabia Butt & Attiya Yasmin Javid, 2013. "Foreign Aid and the Fiscal Behaviour of Government of Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2013:96, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    6. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2010. "Does financial instability increase environmental pollution in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 31360, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 28 Mar 2011.
    7. Muhammad Shahbaz & Talat Afza & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir, 2013. "Financial Development, Domestic Savings and Poverty Reduction in Pakistan: Using Cointegration and Granger Causality Analysis," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(5), pages 59-73, May.
    8. Muhammad Shahbaz & Nanthakumar Loganathan & Aviral Tiwari & Reza Sherafatian-Jahromi, 2015. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: Is There Any Financial Kuznets Curve in Iran?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 124(2), pages 357-382, November.
    9. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Faridul, Islam & Muhammad Sabihuddin, Butt, 2011. "Devaluation and income inequality: Evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35522, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Dec 2011.
    10. Uddin, Gazi Salah & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Arouri, Mohamed & Teulon, Frédéric, 2014. "Financial development and poverty reduction nexus: A cointegration and causality analysis in Bangladesh," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 405-412.
    11. Christelle Meniago & Simplice Asongu, 2018. "Revisiting the Finance-Inequality Nexus in a Panel of African Countries," Working Papers 18/014, African Governance and Development Institute..
    12. Muhammad Shahbaz & Naveed Aamir, 2007. "Rural-Urban Income Inequality under Financial Development and Trade Openness in Pakistan: The Econometric Evidence," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 657-672.
    13. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:9:p:1890-1917 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Stefan D. Josten, 2013. "Middle-Class Consensus, Social Capital And The Fundamental Causes Of Economic Growth And Development," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 38(1), pages 1-26, March.
    15. Ijaz Rehman & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2014. "Multivariate-based Granger causality between financial deepening and poverty: the case of Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(6), pages 3221-3241, November.
    16. Madhu Sehrawat & A. K. Giri, 2016. "Financial development, poverty and rural-urban income inequality: evidence from South Asian countries," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(2), pages 577-590, March.
    17. Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2013. "Devaluation and Income Inequality Nexus: Evidence from Pakistan," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(4), pages 48-58, April.
    18. Ziv Chinzara & Radhika Lahiri, 2012. "Economic growth and inequality patterns in the presence of costly technology adoption and uncertainty," School of Economics and Finance Discussion Papers and Working Papers Series 280, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology.
    19. Ahmed, Azleen Rosemy & Masih, Mansur, 2017. "What is the link between financial development and income inequality? evidence from Malaysia," MPRA Paper 79416, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Taofeek Olusola Ayinde & Olumuyiwa Ganiyu Yinusa, 2016. "Financial Development and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria: A Threshold Analysis," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 12(4), pages 326-346, October.
    21. Haroon Khan, 2015. "The Impact of Inflation on Financial Development," International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, Inovatus Services Ltd., vol. 1(4), pages 42-48, October.
    22. repec:dug:actaec:y:2016:i:5:p:166-189 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. YOUNSI, Moheddine & BECHTINI, Marwa, 2018. "Economic Growth, Financial Development and Income Inequality in BRICS Countries: Evidence from Panel Granger Causality Tests," MPRA Paper 85182, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    Keywords

    Financial Development; Income Inequality;

    JEL classification:

    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies

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