IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Financial Development and Income Inequality: Is there any Financial Kuznets curve in Iran?

  • Muhammad, Shahbaz
  • Tiwari, Aviral
  • Reza, Sherafatian-Jahromi

This deals with the investigation of the relationship between financial development and income inequality in case of Iran. In doing so, we have applied the ARDL bounds testing approach to examine the long-run relationship in the presence of structural break stemming in the series. The unit root properties have been tested by applying Zivot-Andrews (1992) and Clemente et al. (1998) structural break tests. The VECM Granger causality approach is used to detect the direction of causal relationship between financial development and income distribution. Moreover, Greenwood-Jovanovich (GJ) hypothesis has also been tested for Iranian economy. Our results confirm the long run relationship between the variables. Furthermore, financial development reduces income inequality. Economic growth worsens income inequality, but inflation and globalization improve income distribution. Finally, GJ hypothesis is found as well as U-shaped relationship between globalization and income inequality in case of Iran. This study might provide new insights for policy makers to reduce income inequality by making economic growth more fruitful for poor segment of population and directing financial sector to provide access to financial resources of poor individuals at cheaper cost.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/40899/1/MPRA_paper_40899.pdf
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 40899.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 20 Aug 2012
Date of revision: 26 Aug 2012
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:40899
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany

Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2459
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-992459
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Canavire Bacarreza, Gustavo J & Rioja, Felix, 2008. "Financial Development and the Distribution of Income in Latin America and the Caribbean," IZA Discussion Papers 3796, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Claessens, Stijn, 2006. "Access to financial services: a review of the issues and public policy objectives," Journal of Financial Transformation, Capco Institute, vol. 17, pages 16-19.
  3. Li, Hongyi & Squire, Lyn & Zou, Heng-fu, 1998. "Explaining International and Intertemporal Variations in Income Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(446), pages 26-43, January.
  4. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2001. "Growth is good for the poor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2587, The World Bank.
  5. Rashmi Umesh Arora, 2012. "Finance and inequality: a study of Indian states," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(34), pages 4527-4538, December.
  6. Nicholas Apergis & Ioannis Filippidis & Claire Economidou, 2007. "Financial Deepening and Economic Growth Linkages: A Panel Data Analysis," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 143(1), pages 179198-1791, April.
  7. Muhammad Shahbaz, 2010. "Income inequality-economic growth and non-linearity: a case of Pakistan," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 613-636, September.
  8. Greenwood, J. & Jovanovic, B., 1988. "Financial Development, Growth, And The Distribution Of Income," RCER Working Papers 131, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  9. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
  10. Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman & Beck, Thorsten, 2000. "Financial intermediation and growth: Causality and causes," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 31-77, August.
  11. Hossein Jalilian & Colin Kirkpatrick, 2005. "Does Financial Development Contribute to Poverty Reduction?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(4), pages 636-656.
  12. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 2013. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Working Papers 2013-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
  13. W. Adrián Risso, 2012. "Inequality and economic growth in China," Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 5(2), pages 80-90, August.
  14. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2007. "Finance, inequality and the poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 27-49, March.
  15. Levine, Ross, 1996. "Financial development and economic growth : views and agenda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1678, The World Bank.
  16. Heshmati, Almas, 2005. "The Relationship between Income Inequality, Poverty, and Globalization," Working Paper Series RP2005/37, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  17. Robert G. King & Ross Levine, 1993. "Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-737.
  18. Abu N. M. Wahid & Muhammad Shahbaz & Pervaz Azim, 2011. "Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 1(4), pages 145-152.
  19. Barry Eichengreen, 1986. "The Political Economy of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff," NBER Working Papers 2001, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Murat F. Iyigun & Ann L. Owen, 2004. "Income inequality, financial development, and macroeconomic fluctuations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(495), pages 352-376, 04.
  21. Pagano, Marco, 1993. "Financial markets and growth: An overview," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 613-622, April.
  22. Neutel, Marcel & Heshmati, Almas, 2006. "Globalisation, Inequality and Poverty Relationships: A Cross Country Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 2223, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  23. Mohsin S. Khan & Abdelhak S Senhadji, 2000. "Financial Development and Economic Growth; An Overview," IMF Working Papers 00/209, International Monetary Fund.
  24. Zaman, Khalid & Izhar, Zeeshan & Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq & Ahmad, Mehboob, 2012. "The relationship between financial indicators and human development in Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1515-1523.
  25. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 1997. "Lag Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 369, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 01 Sep 2000.
  26. Demetriades, Panicos O. & Hussein, Khaled A., 1996. "Does financial development cause economic growth? Time-series evidence from 16 countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 387-411, December.
  27. Siong Hook Law & Hui Boon Tan, 2009. "The Role Of Financial Development On Income Inequality In Malaysia," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 34(2), pages 153-168, December.
  28. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Islam, Faridul, 2011. "Financial development and income inequality in Pakistan: An application of ARDL approach," MPRA Paper 28222, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  29. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-298, April.
  30. Ying Ma & Abdul Jalil, 2008. "Financial Development, Economic Growth and Adaptive Efficiency: A Comparison between China and Pakistan," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 16(6), pages 97-111.
  31. Perron, Pierre & Vogelsang, Timothy J, 1992. "Testing for a Unit Root in a Time Series with a Changing Mean: Corrections and Extensions," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(4), pages 467-470, October.
  32. Ang, James, 2009. "Financial Liberalization and Income Inequality," MPRA Paper 14496, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  33. Gimet, Céline & Lagoarde-Segot, Thomas, 2011. "A closer look at financial development and income distribution," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1698-1713, July.
  34. Manoel Bittencourt, 2007. "Financial Development and Inequality: Brazil 1985-1994," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 164, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  35. Thomas Barnebeck Andersen & Finn Tarp, 2003. "Financial liberalization, financial development and economic growth in LDCs," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(2), pages 189-209.
  36. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-36, July.
  37. Perotti, Roberto, 1996. "Growth, Income Distribution, and Democracy: What the Data Say," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 149-187, June.
  38. Axel Dreher, 2006. "Does globalization affect growth? Evidence from a new index of globalization," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(10), pages 1091-1110.
  39. Bourguignon, F. & Verdier, T., 1997. "Oligarchy, Democracy, Inequality and Growth," DELTA Working Papers 97-10, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  40. Alessandra Bonfiglioli, 2005. "Equities and inequality," Economics Working Papers 947, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  41. Ghamz-e-Ali Siyal & Asma Mohsin & Khalid Zaman, 2014. "Financial Soundness and Pakistan’s Economics Growth: Turn on the Light," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 2(9), pages 359-371, September.
  42. Barro, Robert J, 2000. "Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 5-32, March.
  43. Mohamed Karim KEFI & Hadhek Zouhaier, 2012. "Inequality and Economic Growth," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 2(8), pages 10131025-10, December.
  44. Luintel, Kul B. & Khan, Mosahid, 1999. "A quantitative reassessment of the finance-growth nexus: evidence from a multivariate VAR," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 381-405, December.
  45. Peter H. Lindert & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2001. "Does Globalization Make the World More Unequal?," NBER Working Papers 8228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  46. Hansen, Bruce E, 1992. "Tests for Parameter Instability in Regressions with I(1) Processes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 321-335, July.
  47. Zhicheng Liang, 2006. "Financial Development And Income Distribution: A System Gmm Panel Analysis With Application To Urban China," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 31(2), pages 1-21, December.
  48. Hansen, Bruce E., 1999. "Threshold effects in non-dynamic panels: Estimation, testing, and inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 345-368, December.
  49. Claessens, Stijn & Perotti, Enrico, 2007. "Finance and inequality: Channels and evidence," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 748-773, December.
  50. Sebastian Jauch & Sebastian Watzka, 2011. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: A Panel Data Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 3687, CESifo Group Munich.
  51. Balisacan, Arsenio M. & Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2003. "Growth, inequality and politics revisited: a developing-country case," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 53-58, April.
  52. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
  53. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
  54. Christopoulos, Dimitris K. & Tsionas, Efthymios G., 2004. "Financial development and economic growth: evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 55-74, February.
  55. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 1992. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 251-270, July.
  56. repec:taf:applec:44:y:2012:i:34:p:4527-4538 is not listed on IDEAS
  57. Hui-Boon Tan & Siong-Hook Law, 2012. "Nonlinear dynamics of the finance-inequality nexus in developing countries," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 10(4), pages 551-563, December.
  58. Hamori, Shigeyuki & Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro, 2012. "The effect of financial deepening on inequality: Some international evidence," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 353-359.
  59. Georg R. G. Clarke & Lixin Colin Xu & Heng-fu Zou, 2006. "Finance and Income Inequality: What Do the Data Tell Us?," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 578-596, January.
  60. Jai Mah, 2002. "The impact of globalization on income distribution: the Korean experience," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(15), pages 1007-1009.
  61. Enowbi Batuo, Michael & Guidi, Francesco & Mlambo, Kupukile, 2010. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: Evidence from African Countries," MPRA Paper 25658, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  62. Helmut Lütkepohl, 2006. "Structural vector autoregressive analysis for cointegrated variables," AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, Springer;German Statistical Society, vol. 90(1), pages 75-88, March.
  63. Muhammad Shahbaz & Khalil Ahmad & A. R. Chaudhary, 2008. "Economic Growth and Its Determinants in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 471-486.
  64. Mohammad Shahbaz, 2009. "A Reassessment of Finance-Growth Nexus for Pakistan: Under the Investigation of FMOLS and DOLS Techniques," The IUP Journal of Applied Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(1), pages 65-80, January.
  65. Colin Kirkpatrick, 2000. "Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Poverty Reduction," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 363-388.
  66. Clemente, Jesus & Montanes, Antonio & Reyes, Marcelo, 1998. "Testing for a unit root in variables with a double change in the mean," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 175-182, May.
  67. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
  68. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
  69. Kim, Dong-Hyeon & Lin, Shu-Chin, 2011. "Nonlinearity in the financial developmentâincome inequality nexus," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 310-325, September.
  70. Patrick Honohan, 2004. "Financial Sector Policy and the Poor : Selected Findings and Issues," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14874.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:40899. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.