IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/soinre/v124y2015i2p357-382.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Financial Development and Income Inequality: Is There Any Financial Kuznets Curve in Iran?

Author

Listed:
  • Muhammad Shahbaz
  • Nanthakumar Loganathan
  • Aviral Tiwari
  • Reza Sherafatian-Jahromi

Abstract

This paper deals with the investigation of the relationship between financial development and income inequality in case of Iran. In doing so, we have applied the ARDL bounds testing approach to examine the long-run relationship in the presence of structural break in the series. The unit root properties have been tested by applying Zivot and Andrews (in J Bus Econ Stat 10:251–270, 1992 ) and Clemente et al. (in Econ Lett 59, 175–182, 1998 ) structural break tests. The VECM Granger causality approach is used to detect the direction of the causal relationship between financial development and income inequality. Moreover, Greenwood–Jovanovich (GJ) hypothesis has also been tested for Iranian economy. Our results confirm the long run relationship between the variables. Furthermore, financial development reduces income inequality. Economic growth worsens income inequality, but inflation and globalization improve income distribution. Finally, GJ hypothesis is found as well as U-shaped relationship between globalization and income inequality in case of Iran. This study might provide new insights for policy makers to reduce income inequality by making economic growth more fruitful for poor segment of population and directing financial sector to provide access to financial resources of poor individuals at cheaper cost. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Shahbaz & Nanthakumar Loganathan & Aviral Tiwari & Reza Sherafatian-Jahromi, 2015. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: Is There Any Financial Kuznets Curve in Iran?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 124(2), pages 357-382, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:124:y:2015:i:2:p:357-382
    DOI: 10.1007/s11205-014-0801-9
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11205-014-0801-9
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s11205-014-0801-9?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Balisacan, Arsenio M. & Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2003. "Growth, inequality and politics revisited: a developing-country case," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 53-58, April.
    2. Muhammad Shahbaz & Khalil Ahmad & A. R. Chaudhary, 2008. "Economic Growth and Its Determinants in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 471-486.
    3. Abdul Jalil & Mete Feridun, 2011. "Long-run relationship between income inequality and financial development in China," Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 202-214.
    4. Mohammad Shahbaz, 2009. "A Reassessment of Finance-Growth Nexus for Pakistan: Under the Investigation of FMOLS and DOLS Techniques," The IUP Journal of Applied Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(1), pages 65-80, January.
    5. Bourguignon, Francois & Verdier, Thierry, 2000. "Oligarchy, democracy, inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 285-313, August.
    6. Kim, Dong-Hyeon & Lin, Shu-Chin, 2011. "Nonlinearity in the financial developmentâincome inequality nexus," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 310-325, September.
    7. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2002. "Growth Is Good for the Poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 195-225, September.
    8. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
    9. Greenwood, Jeremy & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1990. "Financial Development, Growth, and the Distribution of Income," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 1076-1107, October.
    10. Hansen, Bruce E., 1999. "Threshold effects in non-dynamic panels: Estimation, testing, and inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 345-368, December.
    11. Abu N. M. Wahid & Muhammad Shahbaz & Pervaz Azim, 2011. "Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 1(4), pages 145-152.
    12. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 1993. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(1), pages 35-52.
    13. Gimet, Céline & Lagoarde-Segot, Thomas, 2011. "A closer look at financial development and income distribution," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1698-1713, July.
    14. Rashmi Umesh Arora, 2012. "Finance and inequality: a study of Indian states," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(34), pages 4527-4538, December.
    15. Ross Levine & Norman Loayza & Thorsten Beck, 2002. "Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Leonardo Hernández & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Se (ed.),Banking, Financial Integration, and International Crises, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 2, pages 031-084, Central Bank of Chile.
    16. Thomas Barnebeck Andersen & Finn Tarp, 2003. "Financial liberalization, financial development and economic growth in LDCs," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(2), pages 189-209.
    17. Clemente, Jesus & Montanes, Antonio & Reyes, Marcelo, 1998. "Testing for a unit root in variables with a double change in the mean," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 175-182, May.
    18. Robert G. King & Ross Levine, 1993. "Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-737.
    19. Ying Ma & Abdul Jalil, 2008. "Financial Development, Economic Growth and Adaptive Efficiency: A Comparison between China and Pakistan," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 16(6), pages 97-111, November.
    20. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    21. Stijn Claessens, 2006. "Access to Financial Services: A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 207-240.
    22. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-298, April.
    23. W. Adrián Risso & Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera, 2012. "Inequality and economic growth in China," Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 5(2), pages 80-90, June.
    24. Ross Levine, 1997. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(2), pages 688-726, June.
    25. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    26. Pagano, Marco, 1993. "Financial markets and growth: An overview," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 613-622, April.
    27. repec:taf:applec:44:y:2012:i:34:p:4527-4538 is not listed on IDEAS
    28. Neutel, Marcel & Heshmati, Almas, 2006. "Globalisation, Inequality and Poverty Relationships: A Cross Country Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 2223, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    29. Hamori, Shigeyuki & Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro, 2012. "The effect of financial deepening on inequality: Some international evidence," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 353-359.
    30. Helmut Lütkepohl, 2006. "Structural Vector Autoregressive Analysis for Cointegrated Variables," Springer Books, in: Olaf Hübler & Jachim Frohn (ed.), Modern Econometric Analysis, chapter 6, pages 73-86, Springer.
    31. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2007. "Finance, inequality and the poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 27-49, March.
    32. Barry Eichengreen, 1986. "The Political Economy of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff," NBER Working Papers 2001, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    33. Peter H. Lindert & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "Does Globalization Make the World More Unequal?," NBER Chapters, in: Globalization in Historical Perspective, pages 227-276, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    34. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
    35. Jai Mah, 2002. "The impact of globalization on income distribution: the Korean experience," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(15), pages 1007-1009.
    36. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
    37. Murat F. Iyigun & Ann L. Owen, 2004. "Income inequality, financial development, and macroeconomic fluctuations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(495), pages 352-376, April.
    38. Nicholas Apergis & Ioannis Filippidis & Claire Economidou, 2007. "Financial Deepening and Economic Growth Linkages: A Panel Data Analysis," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 143(1), pages 179-198, April.
    39. Zaman, Khalid & Izhar, Zeeshan & Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq & Ahmad, Mehboob, 2012. "The relationship between financial indicators and human development in Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1515-1523.
    40. Colin Kirkpatrick, 2000. "Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Poverty Reduction," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 363-388.
    41. Perotti, Roberto, 1996. "Growth, Income Distribution, and Democracy: What the Data Say," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 149-187, June.
    42. Hansen, Bruce E, 2002. "Tests for Parameter Instability in Regressions with I(1) Processes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 45-59, January.
    43. Ghamz-e-Ali Siyal & Asma Mohsin & Khalid Zaman, 2014. "Financial Soundness and Pakistan’s Economics Growth: Turn on the Light," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 2(9), pages 359-371, September.
    44. Barro, Robert J, 2000. "Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 5-32, March.
    45. Demetriades, Panicos O. & Hussein, Khaled A., 1996. "Does financial development cause economic growth? Time-series evidence from 16 countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 387-411, December.
    46. Muhammad Shahbaz, 2010. "Income inequality-economic growth and non-linearity: a case of Pakistan," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 613-636, July.
    47. Enowbi Batuo, Michael & Guidi, Francesco & Mlambo, Kupukile, 2010. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: Evidence from African Countries," MPRA Paper 25658, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    48. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    49. Manoel Bittencourt, 2010. "Financial development and inequality: Brazil 1985–1994," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 113-130, May.
    50. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    51. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-836, July.
    52. Georg R. G. Clarke & Lixin Colin Xu & Heng-fu Zou, 2006. "Finance and Income Inequality: What Do the Data Tell Us?," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 72(3), pages 578-596, January.
    53. Li, Hongyi & Squire, Lyn & Zou, Heng-fu, 1998. "Explaining International and Intertemporal Variations in Income Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(446), pages 26-43, January.
    54. Siong Hook Law & Hui Boon Tan, 2009. "The Role Of Financial Development On Income Inequality In Malaysia," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 34(2), pages 153-168, December.
    55. Alessandra Bonfiglioli, 2004. "Equities and Inequality," 2004 Meeting Papers 256, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    56. Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam, 2011. "Financial Development And Income Inequality In Pakistan: An Application Of Ardl Approach," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 35-58, March.
    57. Heshmati, Almas, 2004. "The Relationship between Income Inequality, Poverty and Globalisation," IZA Discussion Papers 1277, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    58. Axel Dreher, 2006. "Does globalization affect growth? Evidence from a new index of globalization," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(10), pages 1091-1110.
    59. Christopoulos, Dimitris K. & Tsionas, Efthymios G., 2004. "Financial development and economic growth: evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 55-74, February.
    60. Zhicheng Liang, 2006. "Financial Development And Income Distribution: A System Gmm Panel Analysis With Application To Urban China," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 31(2), pages 1-21, December.
    61. Ang, James, 2009. "Financial Liberalization and Income Inequality," MPRA Paper 14496, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    62. Perron, Pierre & Vogelsang, Timothy J, 1992. "Testing for a Unit Root in a Time Series with a Changing Mean: Corrections and Extensions," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(4), pages 467-470, October.
    63. Luintel, Kul B. & Khan, Mosahid, 1999. "A quantitative reassessment of the finance-growth nexus: evidence from a multivariate VAR," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 381-405, December.
    64. Hui-Boon Tan & Siong-Hook Law, 2012. "Nonlinear dynamics of the finance-inequality nexus in developing countries," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 10(4), pages 551-563, December.
    65. Mohamed Karim KEFI & Hadhek Zouhaier, 2012. "Inequality and Economic Growth," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 2(8), pages 1013-1025, December.
    66. Sebastian Jauch & Sebastian Watzka, 2011. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: A Panel Data Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 3687, CESifo.
    67. Claessens, Stijn & Perotti, Enrico, 2007. "Finance and inequality: Channels and evidence," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 748-773, December.
    68. Canavire Bacarreza, Gustavo J & Rioja, Felix, 2008. "Financial Development and the Distribution of Income in Latin America and the Caribbean," IZA Discussion Papers 3796, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    69. Hossein Jalilian & Colin Kirkpatrick, 2005. "Does Financial Development Contribute to Poverty Reduction?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(4), pages 636-656.
    70. Mr. Mohsin S. Khan & Mr. Abdelhak S Senhadji, 2000. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: An Overview," IMF Working Papers 2000/209, International Monetary Fund.
    71. Patrick Honohan, 2004. "Financial Sector Policy and the Poor : Selected Findings and Issues," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 14874, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Buhari Dogan & Mürsel Akyüz, 2017. "Female Labor Force Participation Rate And Economic Growth In The Framework Of Kuznets Curve: Evidence From Turkey," Review of Economic and Business Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 19, pages 33-54, June.
    2. Boukraine, Wissem, 2020. "The finance-inequality nexus in the BRICS countries: evidence from an ARDL bound testing approach," MPRA Paper 101976, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Chi-Chuan Lee & Chien-Chiang Lee, 2018. "The Impact of Country Risk on Income Inequality: A Multilevel Analysis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 136(1), pages 139-162, February.
    4. Moheddine Younsi & Marwa Bechtini, 2020. "Economic Growth, Financial Development, and Income Inequality in BRICS Countries: Does Kuznets’ Inverted U-Shaped Curve Exist?," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 11(2), pages 721-742, June.
    5. Günay ÖZCAN, 2020. "Financial development and income inequality: An empirical analysis on the emerging market economies," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(3(624), A), pages 85-96, Autumn.
    6. Mehmet Akif Destek & Avik Sinha & Samuel Asumadu Sarkodie, 2020. "The relationship between financial development and income inequality in Turkey," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 9(1), pages 1-14, December.
    7. Wookjae Heo & John E. Grable & Barbara O’Neill, 2017. "Wealth Accumulation Inequality: Does Investment Risk Tolerance and Equity Ownership Drive Wealth Accumulation?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 133(1), pages 209-225, August.
    8. Imran Khan & Zuhaba Nawaz & Bilal Bin Saeed, 2021. "Does trade openness and FDI reduce inequality? Evidence from South Asia," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(4), pages 6459-6470, October.
    9. Koçak Emrah & Uzay Nısfet, 2019. "The effect of financial development on income inequality in Turkey: An estimate of the Greenwood-Jovanovic hypothesis," Review of Economic Perspectives, Sciendo, vol. 19(4), pages 319-344, December.
    10. Muhammad Shahid Hassan & Haider Mahmood & Muhammad Ibrahim Saeed & Tarek Tawfik Yousef Alkhateeb & Noman Arshed & Doaa H. I. Mahmoud, 2021. "Investment Portfolio, Democratic Accountability, Poverty and Income Inequality Nexus in Pakistan: A Way to Social Sustainability," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(11), pages 1-16, June.
    11. Chiu, Yi-Bin & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2019. "Financial development, income inequality, and country risk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 1-18.
    12. Murat Cetin & Harun Demir & Selin Saygin, 2021. "Financial Development, Technological Innovation and Income Inequality: Time Series Evidence from Turkey," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 156(1), pages 47-69, July.
    13. Parewangi, Andi M. Alfian & Iskandar, Azwar, 2020. "The Nexus of Islamic Finance and Poverty," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 61(2), pages 111-139, December.
    14. Salah Abosedra & Muhammad Shahbaz & Kishwar Nawaz, 2016. "Modeling Causality Between Financial Deepening and Poverty Reduction in Egypt," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 126(3), pages 955-969, April.
    15. Dewi Sovia & Abd. Majid M. Shabri & Aliasuddin & Kassim Salina, 2018. "Dynamics of Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Poverty Alleviation: The Indonesian Experience," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 13(1), pages 17-30, June.
    16. Guanchun Liu & Yuanyuan Liu & Chengsi Zhang, 2017. "Financial Development, Financial Structure and Income Inequality in China," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(9), pages 1890-1917, September.
    17. Keneck-Massil, Joseph & Nomo-Beyala, Clery & Owoundi, Ferdinand, 2021. "The corruption and income inequality puzzle: Does political power distribution matter?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 103(C).
    18. John Nkwoma Inekwe & Yi Jin & Maria Rebecca Valenzuela, 2020. "Income inequality, financial flows and political institution: sub-Saharan African financial network," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 58(6), pages 2635-2665, June.
    19. Abebe Hailemariam & Tutsirai Sakutukwa & Ratbek Dzhumashev, 2021. "Long-term determinants of income inequality: evidence from panel data over 1870–2016," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 61(4), pages 1935-1958, October.
    20. Passant M. B. Selim & Hasan Güngör, 2021. "Inequality and financial development: Evidence from selected MENA region countries," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 2732-2747, April.
    21. Mehmet Akif DESTEK, 2018. "Dimensions of globalization and income inequality in transition economies: taking into account cross-sectional dependence," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 9, pages 5-25, December.
    22. Abdul Rahim Ridzuan & Shahsuzan Zakaria & Bayu Arie Fianto & Nora Yusma Mohamed Yusoff & Nor Fatimah Che Sulaiman & Mohamad Idham Md Razak & Siswantini Siswantini & Arsiyanti Lestari, 2021. "Nexus between Financial Development and Income Inequality before Pandemic Covid-19: Does Financial Kuznets Curve Exist in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines?," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(2), pages 260-271.
    23. YOUNSI, Moheddine & BECHTINI, Marwa, 2018. "Economic Growth, Financial Development and Income Inequality in BRICS Countries: Evidence from Panel Granger Causality Tests," MPRA Paper 85182, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Sudeshna Ghosh, 2020. "Impact of economic growth volatility on income inequality: ASEAN experience," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 54(3), pages 807-850, June.
    2. Aviral Kumar Tiwari & Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam, 2013. "Does financial development increase rural-urban income inequality?: Cointegration analysis in the case of Indian economy," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(2), pages 151-168, January.
    3. Muhammad Shahbaz & Mita Bhattacharya & Mantu Kumar Mahalik, 2017. "Finance and income inequality in Kazakhstan: evidence since transition with policy suggestions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(52), pages 5337-5351, November.
    4. Abdul Rahim Ridzuan & Shahsuzan Zakaria & Bayu Arie Fianto & Nora Yusma Mohamed Yusoff & Nor Fatimah Che Sulaiman & Mohamad Idham Md Razak & Siswantini Siswantini & Arsiyanti Lestari, 2021. "Nexus between Financial Development and Income Inequality before Pandemic Covid-19: Does Financial Kuznets Curve Exist in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines?," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(2), pages 260-271.
    5. Muhammad Shahbaz & Ijaz Ur Rehman & Ahmed Taneem Muzaffar, 2015. "Re-Visiting Financial Development and Economic Growth Nexus: The Role of Capitalization in Bangladesh," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 83(3), pages 452-471, September.
    6. Ijaz Rehman & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2014. "Multivariate-based Granger causality between financial deepening and poverty: the case of Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(6), pages 3221-3241, November.
    7. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-485 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Muhammad Shahbaz, 2013. "Financial Development, Economics Growth, Income Inequality Nexus: A Case Study of Pakistan," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(3), pages 24-47, March.
    9. Muhammad Shahbaz & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2013. "Effect of financial development on agricultural growth in Pakistan: New extensions from bounds test to level relationships and Granger causality tests," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(8), pages 707-728, June.
    10. Seven, Unal & Coskun, Yener, 2016. "Does financial development reduce income inequality and poverty? Evidence from emerging countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 34-63.
    11. YOUNSI, Moheddine & BECHTINI, Marwa, 2018. "Economic Growth, Financial Development and Income Inequality in BRICS Countries: Evidence from Panel Granger Causality Tests," MPRA Paper 85182, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Günay ÖZCAN, 2020. "Financial development and income inequality: An empirical analysis on the emerging market economies," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(3(624), A), pages 85-96, Autumn.
    13. Uddin, Gazi Salah & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Arouri, Mohamed & Teulon, Frédéric, 2014. "Financial development and poverty reduction nexus: A cointegration and causality analysis in Bangladesh," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 405-412.
    14. Madhu Sehrawat & A. K. Giri, 2016. "Financial development, poverty and rural-urban income inequality: evidence from South Asian countries," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(2), pages 577-590, March.
    15. Passant M. B. Selim & Hasan Güngör, 2021. "Inequality and financial development: Evidence from selected MENA region countries," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 2732-2747, April.
    16. Abosedra, Salah & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nawaz, Kishwar, 2015. "Modeling Causality between Financial Deepening and Poverty Reduction in Egypt," MPRA Paper 67166, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 09 Oct 2015.
    17. Meniago, Christelle & Asongu, Simplice A., 2018. "Revisiting the finance-inequality nexus in a panel of African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 399-419.
    18. Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam, 2011. "Financial Development And Income Inequality In Pakistan: An Application Of Ardl Approach," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 35-58, March.
    19. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2012. "Does trade openness affect long run growth? Cointegration, causality and forecast error variance decomposition tests for Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2325-2339.
    20. Blau, Benjamin M., 2018. "Income inequality, poverty, and the liquidity of stock markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 113-126.
    21. Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2011. "Electricity Consumption, Financial Development and Economic Growth Nexus: A Revisit Study of Their Causality in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35588, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Dec 2011.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financial development; Income inequality; Iran;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:124:y:2015:i:2:p:357-382. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.