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Financial Development and Income Inequality: A Panel Data Approach

Author

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  • Sebastian Jauch
  • Sebastian Watzka

Abstract

We analyze the link between financial development and income inequality for a broad unbalanced dataset of up to 138 developed and developing countries over the years 1960 to 2008. Using credit-to-GDP as a measure of financial development, our results reject theoretical models predicting a negative impact of financial development on income inequality measured by the Gini coefficient. Controlling for country fixed effects and GDP per capita, we find that financial development has a positive effect on income inequality. These results are robust to different measures of financial development, econometric specifications, and control variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Sebastian Jauch & Sebastian Watzka, 2011. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: A Panel Data Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 3687, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_3687
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    File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/DocDL/cesifo1_wp3687.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Global Inequality: Beyond the Bottom Billion – A Rapid Review of Income Distribution in 141 Countries," Working papers 1105, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
    2. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 1993. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(1), pages 35-52.
    3. Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1996. "A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(3), pages 565-591, September.
    4. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson & Pierre Yared, 2008. "Income and Democracy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(3), pages 808-842, June.
    5. Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2009. "Finance and Inequality: Theory and Evidence," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 287-318, November.
    6. Frederick Solt, 2009. "Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 90(2), pages 231-242.
    7. Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1996. "A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(3), pages 565-591, September.
    8. Clarke, George & Xu, Lixin Colin & Zou, Heng-fu, 2003. "Finance and income inequality : test of alternative theories," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2984, The World Bank.
    9. Frederick Solt, 2009. "Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database," LIS Working papers 496, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    10. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2010. "Financial Institutions and Markets across Countries and over Time: The Updated Financial Development and Structure Database," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 24(1), pages 77-92, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Seven, Unal & Kilinc, Dilara & Coskun, Yener, 2017. "Does Credit Composition Have Asymmetric Effects on Income Inequality?," MPRA Paper 82104, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. de Haan, Jakob & Sturm, Jan-Egbert, 2017. "Finance and income inequality: A review and new evidence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 171-195.
    3. repec:agr:journl:v:xxiv:y:2017:i:2(611):p:61-74 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Kaidi Nasreddine & Sami Mensi, 2016. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: The Linear versus the Nonlinear Hypothesis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(2), pages 609-626.
    5. Ahmed, Azleen Rosemy & Masih, Mansur, 2017. "What is the link between financial development and income inequality? evidence from Malaysia," MPRA Paper 79416, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Rémi Bazillier & Jérôme Hericourt, 2017. "The Circular Relationship Between Inequality, Leverage, And Financial Crises," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(2), pages 463-496, April.
    7. Muhammad Shahbaz & Nanthakumar Loganathan & Aviral Tiwari & Reza Sherafatian-Jahromi, 2015. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: Is There Any Financial Kuznets Curve in Iran?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 124(2), pages 357-382, November.
    8. Donatella Baiardi & Claudio Morana, 2015. "Financial deepening and income distribution inequality in the euro area," CeRP Working Papers 153, Center for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies, Turin (Italy).
    9. Sturm, Jan-Egbert & De Haan, Jakob, 2016. "Finance and income inequality revisited," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145660, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. Schaltegger, Christoph A. & Weder, Martin, 2014. "Austerity, inequality and politics," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 1-22.
    11. Emmanuel Carré & Guillaume L’Œillet, 2017. "Une revue de la littérature récente sur le nexus finance-croissance après la crise : apports, limites et pistes de recherche," Revue d'économie financière, Association d'économie financière, vol. 0(3), pages 271-290.
    12. Oliver Denk & Boris Cournède, 2015. "Finance and income inequality in OECD countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1224, OECD Publishing.
    13. repec:sgh:erfinj:v:2:y:2017:i:1:p:43-62 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Kvedaras, Virmantas, 2017. "Income inequality and private bank credit in developed economies," Working Papers 2017-06, Joint Research Centre, European Commission (Ispra site).
    15. Rémi Bazillier & Jérôme Héricourt, 2014. "The Circular Relationship between Inequality, Leverage, and Financial Crises: Intertwined Mechanisms and Competing Evidence," Working Papers 2014-22, CEPII research center.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    financial development; income inequality; global; panel analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance

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