IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Population growth and standard of living: A threshold regression approach


  • Fumitaka Furuoka

    () (Universiti Malaysia Sabah)

  • Qaiser Munir

    () (Universiti Malaysia Sabah)


This study employs Hansen's (2000) threshold regression analysis to examine the relationship between population growth and per capita GDP in 117 countries. Threshold regression analysis allows controlling the quality of population when examining the relationship between the quantity of population and per capita income in a country. The paper uses Human Development Index (HDI) value as the threshold regression variable. In the course of the analysis, a sample of 117 countries was split twice and separated into four sub-samples. The threshold regression analysis revealed that there was a significant negative relationship between population growth and per capita GDP only in the countries with a low level of human development. In other words, quantitative expansion of population would have negative impact on standard of living only in the countries with low quality of population. The empirical findings of this paper support a proposition that the quality of population aspect should be included in the debate on the relationship between population expansion and economic development.

Suggested Citation

  • Fumitaka Furuoka & Qaiser Munir, 2011. "Population growth and standard of living: A threshold regression approach," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(1), pages 844-859.
  • Handle: RePEc:ebl:ecbull:eb-10-00351

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Thirlwall, A P, 1972. "A Cross Section Study of Population Growth and the Growth of Output and Per Capita Income in a Production Function Framework," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 40(4), pages 339-356, December.
    2. Alberto Bucci & Davide Torre, 2009. "Population and economic growth with human and physical capital investments," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 56(1), pages 17-27, March.
    3. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:15:y:2007:i:8:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. John Thornton, 2001. "Population Growth and Economic Growth: Long-Run Evidence from Latin America," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 464-468, October.
    5. Frederic Tournemaine, 2007. "Can population promote income per-capita growth? A balanced perspective," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 15(8), pages 1-7.
    6. Stephan Klasen & David Lawson, 2007. "The Impact of Population Growth on Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Uganda," Departmental Discussion Papers 133, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics, revised 25 May 2007.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad Rashid Javed & Azka Amin & Parvez Azim, 2015. "Comparison of Standard of Living between Pakistan and Bangladesh," International Journal of Asian Social Science, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(12), pages 715-724, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Furuoka, Fumitaka, 2014. "Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia," MPRA Paper 60636, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Furuoka, Fumitaka, 2012. "Population Growth and Economic Development: Empirical Evidence from the Philippines," Philippine Journal of Development PJD 2010 Vol. 37 No. 1d, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    3. Fumitaka Furuoka, 2009. "Population Growth and Economic Development: New Empirical Evidence from Thailand," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(1), pages 1-14.
    4. Thomas Gries & Wim Naudé, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-29, January.
    5. Fumitaka Furuoka, 2018. "Is population beneficial to economic growth? An empirical study of China," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 209-225, January.
    6. Apergis, Nicholas & Polemis, Michael, 2018. "Electricity supply shocks and economic growth across the US states: evidence from a time-varying Bayesian panel VAR model, aggregate and disaggregate energy sources," MPRA Paper 84954, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Joao Ricardo Faria & Miguel Leon-Ledesma & Adolfo Sachsida, 2006. "Population and income: Is there a puzzle?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(6), pages 909-917.
    8. Qing Pei & David D Zhang & Harry F Lee & Guodong Li, 2014. "Climate Change and Macro-Economic Cycles in Pre-Industrial Europe," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 9(2), pages 1-8, February.
    9. Frederic Tournemaine & Pongsak Luangaram, 2012. "R&D, human capital, fertility, and growth," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 25(3), pages 923-953, July.
    10. Abdullah Abdulaziz A. Bawazir & Mohamed Aslam & Ahmad Farid Bin Osman, 2020. "Demographic change and economic growth: empirical evidence from the Middle East," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 53(3), pages 429-450, August.
    11. Waeyenberge, Elisa Van. & Bargawi, Hannah., 2011. "Macroeconomic policy for "full and productive employment and decent work for all" : Uganda country study," ILO Working Papers 994658733402676, International Labour Organization.
    12. Boucekkine, R. & Martínez, B. & Ruiz-Tamarit, J.R., 2013. "Growth vs. level effect of population change on economic development: An inspection into human-capital-related mechanisms," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 312-334.
    13. John Anyanwu, 2013. "Working Paper 181 - Determining the Correlates of Poverty for Inclusive Growth in Africa," Working Paper Series 979, African Development Bank.
    14. Pýnar HAYALOÐLU & Seyfettin ARTAN & Selim Koray DEMÝREL, 2019. "Sürdürülebilir Geliþme Baðlamýnda Çevresel-Sosyal Faktörler ile Ekonomik Büyüme Arasýndaki Ýliþkiler," Isletme ve Iktisat Calismalari Dergisi, Econjournals, vol. 7(2), pages 52-66.
    15. Thomas H.W. Ziesemer, 2020. "Can we have growth when population is stagnant? Testing linear growth rate formulas of non-scale endogenous growth models," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(13), pages 1502-1516, March.
    16. ADESETE Ahmed Adefemi, 2018. "Economics of Nigeria and West Africa Population Growth: Panel ARDL Approach for West Africa," Asian Journal of Economic Modelling, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 6(3), pages 327-355, September.
    17. Onipede Wusu & Emmanuel O. Amoo, 2016. "Fertility Behaviour and Wealth Situation in Nigeria: Evidence from 2013 Demographic and Health Survey," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 128(1), pages 1-14, August.
    18. Renate Ohr, 2009. "European Monetary Union at Ten: Had the German Maastricht Critics Been Wrong?," Departmental Discussion Papers 141, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    19. Hoppe, Thomas & Schanz, Deborah & Sturm, Susann & Sureth, Caren & Voget, Johannes, 2020. "The relation between tax complexity and foreign direct investment: Evidence across countries," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 250, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
    20. Amina Shahid, 2019. "Openness, Financial Development and Economic Growth in South Asia," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 8(3), pages 132-139, September.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ebl:ecbull:eb-10-00351. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (John P. Conley). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.