IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

The influence of financial leverage of firms on their international trading activities

Listed author(s):
  • Nakhoda, Aadil

Using the BEEPS dataset from Enterprise Surveys, I study the effect of financial leverage (percentage of assets funded by bank loans) of firms on their decision to participate in various trading activities, such as exporting, importing and two way trading (firms that export and import). I determine that the intensity of financial leverage does not inhibit firms which export only from becoming two way traders, but it does inhibit firms which import only or operate only within the national market to become two way traders. The effect is determined to be stronger for firms that operate only within the national market than firms that import only. Since unobserved factors may influence both trading activities and financial leverage, I instrument for financial leverage using a variable that combines overdue payments to suppliers and the relationship of firms with their lenders. I contribute to the literature as I augment a model that determines the effect of financial leverage on various trading activities by implementing differences between industries due to their level of external dependence and asset tangibility. Hence, the effect of financial leverage is determined to vary between different trading activities within industries that exhibit different levels of external dependence and asset tangibility.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/35765/1/MPRA_paper_35765.pdf
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 35765.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: May 2012
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35765
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany

Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2459
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-992459
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window

  1. Armando Silva & Oscar Afonso & Ana Paula Africano, 2011. "Economic performance and international trade engagement: the case of Portuguese manufacturing firms," GEE Papers 0037, Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos, Ministério da Economia, revised May 2011.
  2. Keller, Wolfgang, 2002. "International Technology Diffusion," CEPR Discussion Papers 3133, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Minetti, Raoul & Zhu, Susan Chun, 2011. "Credit constraints and firm export: Microeconomic evidence from Italy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 109-125, March.
  4. Matias Braun & Borja Larrain, 2004. "Finance and the Business Cycle: International, Inter-industry Evidence," Finance 0403001, EconWPA.
  5. Pedro Martins & Luca David Opromolla, 2011. "Why Ex(Im)porters Pay More: Evidence from Matched Firm-Worker Panels," Working Papers w201123, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  6. Brown, M. & Ongena, S. & Popov, A. & Yesin, P., 2010. "Who Needs Credit and Who Gets Credit in Eastern Europe?," Discussion Paper 2010-50, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  7. Maria Bas & Antoine Berthou, 2012. "The Decision to Import Capital Goods in India: Firms' Financial Factors Matter," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-01297745, HAL.
  8. Maurice Kugler & Eric Verhoogen, 2008. "The Quality-Complementarity Hypothesis: Theory and Evidence from Colombia," NBER Working Papers 14418, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Mary Amiti & Jozef G Konings, 2005. "Trade Liberalization, Intermediate Inputs, and Productivity; Evidence from Indonesia," IMF Working Papers 05/146, International Monetary Fund.
  10. Mary Amiti & Amit K. Khandelwal, 2013. "Import Competition and Quality Upgrading," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(2), pages 476-490, May.
  11. Klingebiel, Daniela & Kroszner, Randall S & Laeven, Luc, 2006. "Banking Crises, Financial Dependence and Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 5623, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1996. "Financial Dependence and Growth," NBER Working Papers 5758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Andrei A. Levchenko & Logan T. Lewis & Linda L. Tesar, 2010. "The Collapse of International Trade During the 2008-2009 Crisis: In Search of the Smoking Gun," NBER Working Papers 16006, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Robert C. Feenstra & Zhiyuan Li & Miaojie Yu, 2011. "Exports and Credit Constraints Under Incomplete Information: Theory and Evidence from China," NBER Working Papers 16940, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Yama Temouri & Alexander Vogel & Joachim Wagner, 2010. "Self-selection into export markets by business services firms – Evidence from France, Germany and the United Kingdom," Working Paper Series in Economics 183, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  16. JaeBin Ahn & Amit K. Khandelwal & Shang-Jin Wei, 2010. "The Role of Intermediaries in Facilitating Trade," NBER Working Papers 15706, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Monika Schnitzer, 2013. "Financial Constraints And Innovation: Why Poor Countries Don'T Catch Up," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 11(5), pages 1115-1152, October.
  18. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Michel Quéré, 2007. "The U-Shaped productivity dynamics of French Exporters," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2007-01, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  19. Armando Silva, 2011. "Financial constraints and exports: evidence from Portuguese manufacturing firms," FEP Working Papers 402, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  20. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
  21. Mirabelle Muûls & Mauro Pisu, "undated". "Imports and exports at the level of the firm: Evidence from Belgium," Discussion Papers 07/28, University of Nottingham, GEP.
  22. Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Jan Svejnar & Katherine Terrell, 2008. "Globalization and innovation in emerging markets," NBER Working Papers 14481, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Alexander Vogel & Joachim Wagner, 2010. "Higher productivity in importing German manufacturing firms: self-selection, learning from importing, or both?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 145(4), pages 641-665, January.
  24. Gabor Békés & Carlo Altomonte, 2009. "Trade Complexity and Productivity," Working Papers 2009.62, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  25. Holmstrom, Bengt, 1989. "Agency costs and innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 305-327, December.
  26. Kalina Manova & Shang-Jin Wei & Zhiwei Zhang, 2015. "Firm Exports and Multinational Activity Under Credit Constraints," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 97(3), pages 574-588, July.
  27. Maurice Kugler & Eric Verhoogen, 2009. "Plants and Imported Inputs: New Facts and an Interpretation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 501-507, May.
  28. Blalock, Garrick & Veloso, Francisco M., 2007. "Imports, Productivity Growth, and Supply Chain Learning," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1134-1151, July.
  29. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-592, July.
  30. Greenaway, David & Kneller, Richard, 2008. "Exporting, productivity and agglomeration," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(5), pages 919-939, July.
  31. Jen Baggs & James A Brander, 2006. "Trade liberalization, profitability, and financial leverage," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 37(2), pages 196-211, March.
  32. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  33. Manova, Kalina, 2008. "Credit constraints, equity market liberalizations and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 33-47, September.
  34. Jyrki Niskanen & Mervi Niskanen, 2006. "The Determinants of Corporate Trade Credit Policies in a Bank-dominated Financial Environment: the Case of Finnish Small Firms," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(1), pages 81-102.
  35. Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Atif Mian, 2008. "Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks: Evidence from an Emerging Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1413-1442, September.
  36. Hoekman, Bernard M. & Maskus, Keith E. & Saggi, Kamal, 2005. "Transfer of technology to developing countries: Unilateral and multilateral policy options," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1587-1602, October.
  37. Hiroyuki Kasahara & Beverly Lapham, 2008. "Productivity and the Decision to Import and Export: Theory and Evidence," CESifo Working Paper Series 2240, CESifo Group Munich.
  38. Davin Chor & Kalina Manova, 2010. "Off the Cliff and Back? Credit Conditions and International Trade during the Global Fnancial Crisis," NBER Chapters, in: Market Institutions and Financial Market Risk National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  39. Ralph Haas & Marga Peeters, 2006. "The dynamic adjustment towards target capital structures of firms in transition economies ," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(1), pages 133-169, 03.
  40. Stiebale, Joel, 2008. "Do Financial Constraints Matter for Foreign Market Entry? – A Firm-Level Examination," Ruhr Economic Papers 51, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
  41. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Laeven, Luc & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2006. "The determinants of financing obstacles," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 932-952, October.
  42. Lionel Nesta & Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Stefano Schiavo, 2008. "Financial Constraints and Firm Export Behavior," Sciences Po publications 16, 2008, Sciences Po.
  43. Paula Bustos, 2009. "Trade liberalization, exports and technology upgrading: Evidence on the impact of MERCOSUR on Argentinean firms," Economics Working Papers 1173, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  44. Amiti, Mary & Weinstein, David E., 2009. "Exports and Financial Shocks," CEPR Discussion Papers 7590, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  45. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli, 2006. "Small and medium-size enterprises: Access to finance as a growth constraint," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 2931-2943, November.
  46. Hyndman, Kyle & Serio, Giovanni, 2010. "Competition and inter-firm credit: Theory and evidence from firm-level data in Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 88-108, September.
  47. Sean Cleary, 1999. "The Relationship between Firm Investment and Financial Status," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 673-692, 04.
  48. Thomas Chaney, 2008. "Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1707-1721, September.
  49. Fergal McCann, 2009. "Importing, exporting and productivity in Irish manufacturing," Working Papers 200922, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  50. Greenaway, David & Guariglia, Alessandra & Kneller, Richard, 2007. "Financial factors and exporting decisions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 377-395, November.
  51. Tibor Besedeš & Byung–Cheol Kim & Volodymyr Lugovskyy, 2011. "Export Growth and Credit Constraints," CeFiG Working Papers 16, Center for Firms in the Global Economy, revised 16 Oct 2011.
  52. Mona Haddad & Ann Harrison & Catherine Hausman, 2010. "Decomposing the Great Trade Collapse: Products, Prices, and Quantities in the 2008-2009 Crisis," NBER Working Papers 16253, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  53. Riccardo De Bonis & Giovanni Ferri & Zeno Rotondi, 2010. "Do bank-firm relationships influence firm internationalization?," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 37, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
  54. Davide Castellani & Francesco Serti & Chiara Tomasi, 2008. "Firms in International Trade: Importers and Exporters Heterogeneity in the Italian Manufacturing Industry," LEM Papers Series 2008/04, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  55. Jože P. Damijan & Črt Kostevc, 2011. "Firms' Pattern of Trade and Access to Finance," LICOS Discussion Papers 27811, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  56. Kon, Y & Storey, D J, 2003. "A Theory of Discouraged Borrowers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 37-49, August.
  57. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  58. Peter MacKay & Gordon M. Phillips, 2005. "How Does Industry Affect Firm Financial Structure?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 1433-1466.
  59. Hur, Jung & Raj, Manoj & Riyanto, Yohanes E., 2006. "Finance and trade: A cross-country empirical analysis on the impact of financial development and asset tangibility on international trade," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1728-1741, October.
  60. Rajendra R. Vaidya, 2011. "The Determinants of trade credit: Evidence from Indian manufacturing firms," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-012, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  61. Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "Unobserved firm heterogeneity and the size-exports nexus : evidence from German panel data," HWWA Discussion Papers 194, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  62. Steven N. Kaplan & Luigi Zingales, 1997. "Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(1), pages 169-215.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35765. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.