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Credit constraints and exports: A survey of empirical studies using firm level data

  • Joachim Wagner

    ()

    (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)

Business managers are well aware of the fact that credit constraints can hamper or even prevent exporting. Economists only recently started to incorporate these arguments in theoretical models of heterogeneous firms and to test the implications of these models econometrically with firm-level data. Starting with the pioneering study by Greenaway, Guariglia and Kneller (Journal of International Economics, 2007) a growing number of empirical papers looked at the links between financial constraints and export activities using data at the level of the firm. This paper presents a tabular survey of 32 empirical studies that cover 14 different countries plus five multi-country studies. The big picture can be summarized as follows: Financial constraints are important for the export decisions of firms – exporting firms are less financially constrained than non-exporting firms. Studies that look at the direction of this link usually report that less constraint firms self-select into exporting, but that exporting does not improve financial health of firms. The paper argues that the results at hand should not be considered as stylized facts that can guide policy makers in an evidence-based way and suggests a strategy to further improve our knowledge in this area.

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Paper provided by University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics in its series Working Paper Series in Economics with number 287.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:lue:wpaper:287
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://leuphana.de/institute/ivwl.html

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  1. Joachim Wagner, 2012. "Credit constraints and exports: Evidence for German manufacturing enterprises," Working Paper Series in Economics 251, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  2. Thomas Chaney, 2013. "Liquidity Constrained Exporters," NBER Working Papers 19170, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Buch, Claudia M. & Kesternich, Iris & Lipponer, Alexander & Schnitzer, Monika, 2010. "Exports Versus FDI Revisited: Does Finance Matter?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7839, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Hasan, Syed M., 2013. "Credit Constraints, Technology Choice and Exports - A Firm Level Study for Latin American Countries," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149742, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  5. Nicolas Berman & Jérôme Héricourt, 2008. "Financial Factors and the Margins of Trade: Evidence from Cross-Country Firm-Level Data," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00321632, HAL.
  6. Kalina Manova, 2013. "Credit Constraints, Heterogeneous Firms, and International Trade," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(2), pages 711-744.
  7. Claudia M. Buch & Iris Kesternich & Alexander Lipponer, 2009. "Financial Constraints and the Margins of FDI," IAW Discussion Papers 54, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  8. Armando Silva, 2011. "Financial constraints and exports: evidence from Portuguese manufacturing firms," FEP Working Papers 402, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  9. Vlad Manole & Mariana Spatareanu, 2009. "Exporting, Capital Investment and Financial Constraints," Working Papers Rutgers University, Newark 2009-005, Department of Economics, Rutgers University, Newark.
  10. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Stefano Schiavo, 2008. "Financial Constraints and Firm Export Behavior," Department of Economics Working Papers 0816, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
  11. Joan Farre-Mensa & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2013. "Do Measures of Financial Constraints Measure Financial Constraints?," NBER Working Papers 19551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Joachim Wagner, 2011. "From Estimation Results to Stylized Facts Twelve Recommendations for Empirical Research in International Activities of Heterogeneous Firms," De Economist, Springer, vol. 159(4), pages 389-412, December.
  13. Mirabelle Muûls, 2012. "Exporters, importers and credit constraints," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 51516, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  14. Guariglia, Alessandra & Mateut, Simona, 2010. "Inventory investment, global engagement, and financial constraints in the UK: Evidence from micro data," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 239-250, March.
  15. Alexandru MINEA & Youssouf KIENDREBEOGO, 2012. "Financial Factors and Manufacturing Exports:Theory and Firm-level Evidence From Egypt," Working Papers 201221, CERDI.
  16. Holger Görg & Marina-Eliza Spaliara, 2014. "Financial Health, Exports and Firm Survival: Evidence from UK and French Firms," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 81(323), pages 419-444, 07.
  17. Mark J. Melitz, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," NBER Working Papers 8881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Andrea Caggese & Vicente Cuñat, 2011. "Financing constraints, firm dynamics, export decisions, and aggregate productivity," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 43160, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  19. Davin Chor & Kalina Manova, 2010. "Off the Cliff and Back? Credit Conditions and International Trade during the Global Fnancial Crisis," NBER Chapters, in: Market Institutions and Financial Market Risk National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Mirabelle Muûls, 2008. "Exporters and credit constraints. A firm-level approach," Working Paper Research 139, National Bank of Belgium.
  21. Christian Arndt & Claudia M. Buch & Anselm Mattes, 2012. "Disentangling barriers to internationalization," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(1), pages 41-63, February.
  22. Joel Stiebale, 2008. "Do Financial Constraints Matter for Foreign Market Entry? – A Firm-Level Examination," Ruhr Economic Papers 0051, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  23. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2007. "Viewpoint: Replication in economics," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(3), pages 715-733, August.
  24. Askenazy, Philippe & Caldera, Aida & Gaulier, Guillaume & Irac, Delphine, 2011. "Financial Constraints and Foreign Market Entries or Exits: Firm Level Evidence from France," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Docweb) 1112, CEPREMAP.
  25. Görg, Holger & Spaliara, Marina-Eliza, 2013. "Export market exit, financial pressure and the crisis," CEPR Discussion Papers 9599, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  26. Sarah Bridges & Alessandra Guariglia, 2008. "Financial Constraints, Global Engagement, And Firm Survival In The United Kingdom: Evidence From Micro Data," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 55(4), pages 444-464, 09.
  27. Maria Bas & Antoine Berthou, 2012. "The Decision to Import Capital Goods in India: Firms' Financial Factors Matter," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 26(3), pages 486-513.
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  36. Hasan, Syed & Sheldon, Ian, 2013. "Credit Constraints, Technology Choice and Exports - A Firm Level Study for Latin American Countries," Proceedings Issues, 2013: Employment, Immigration and Trade, December 15-17, 2013, Clearwater Beach, Florida 182501, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
  37. Nakhoda, Aadil, 2012. "The influence of financial leverage of firms on their international trading activities," MPRA Paper 35765, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  38. Gabriel J. Felbermayr & Inga Heiland & Erdal Yalcin, 2012. "Mitigating Liquidity Constraints: Public Export Credit Guarantees in Germany," CESifo Working Paper Series 3908, CESifo Group Munich.
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