IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/gla/glaewp/2021_14.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Financial Dependence and Intensive Margin of Trade

Author

Listed:
  • Melise Jaud
  • Madina Kukenova
  • Martin Strieborny

Abstract

This paper examines the transmission process from finance to the real economy in the context of product-level export survival. We find that conditional on the specific financial needs of exported products, banks and stock markets play distinctive roles in helping exporters survive in foreign markets. Stock markets rather than banks help exporters who lack easily collateralizable tangible assets. Active rather than large stock markets facilitate exports of products requiring high levels of working capital. And the trade credit can act as a substitute only for bank financing and only in the presence of well-established export links.

Suggested Citation

  • Melise Jaud & Madina Kukenova & Martin Strieborny, 2021. "Financial Dependence and Intensive Margin of Trade," Working Papers 2021_14, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  • Handle: RePEc:gla:glaewp:2021_14
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.gla.ac.uk/media/Media_807267_smxx.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kalina Manova, 2013. "Credit Constraints, Heterogeneous Firms, and International Trade," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 80(2), pages 711-744.
    2. Fan, Haichao & Lai, Edwin L.-C. & Li, Yao Amber, 2015. "Credit constraints, quality, and export prices: Theory and evidence from China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 390-416.
    3. Besedes, Tibor & Prusa, Thomas J., 2006. "Product differentiation and duration of US import trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 339-358, December.
    4. Nicola Cetorelli & Philip E. Strahan, 2006. "Finance as a Barrier to Entry: Bank Competition and Industry Structure in Local U.S. Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(1), pages 437-461, February.
    5. Melise Jaud & Madina Kukenova & Martin Strieborny, 2015. "Financial Development and Sustainable Exports: Evidence from Firm-product Data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(7), pages 1090-1114, July.
    6. Richard Baldwin & James Harrigan, 2011. "Zeros, Quality, and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 60-88, May.
    7. Volker Nitsch, 2009. "Die another day: duration in German import trade," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 145(1), pages 133-154, April.
    8. Nicola Cetorelli & Michele Gambera, 2001. "Banking Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Growth: International Evidence from Industry Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 617-648, April.
    9. Andrew B Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2007. "Firm Structure, Multinationals, and Manufacturing Plant Deaths," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(2), pages 193-204, May.
    10. Hui Tong & Shang-Jin Wei, 2011. "The Composition Matters: Capital Inflows and Liquidity Crunch During a Global Economic Crisis," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(6), pages 2023-2052.
    11. Daniel Paravisini & Veronica Rappoport & Philipp Schnabl & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2015. "Dissecting the Effect of Credit Supply on Trade: Evidence from Matched Credit-Export Data," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 82(1), pages 333-359.
    12. Albornoz, Facundo & Calvo Pardo, Héctor F. & Corcos, Gregory & Ornelas, Emanuel, 2012. "Sequential exporting," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 17-31.
    13. Crinò, Rosario & Ogliari, Laura, 2017. "Financial imperfections, product quality, and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 63-84.
    14. Martin Strieborny & Madina Kukenova, 2016. "Investment in Relationship-Specific Assets: Does Finance Matter?," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 20(4), pages 1487-1515.
    15. Sam Langfield & Marco Pagano, 2016. "Bank bias in Europe: effects on systemic risk and growth," Economic Policy, CEPR, CESifo, Sciences Po;CES;MSH, vol. 31(85), pages 51-106.
    16. Paul Brenton & Christian Saborowski & Erik von Uexkull, 2014. "What Explains the Low Survival Rate of Developing Country Export Flows?," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: INTERNATIONAL TRADE, DISTRIBUTION AND DEVELOPMENT Empirical Studies of Trade Policies, chapter 17, pages 347-372, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    17. Amissah, Emmanuel & Bougheas, Spiros & Defever, Fabrice & Falvey, Rod, 2021. "Financial system architecture and the patterns of international trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    18. Tibor Besedes & Thomas Prusa, 2006. "Ins, outs, and the duration of trade," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 39(1), pages 266-295, February.
    19. Gaulier, Guillaume & Zignago, Soledad, 2004. "Notes on BACI (analytical database of international trade). 1989-2002 version," MPRA Paper 32401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Bernard, Andrew B. & Redding, Stephen & Schott, Peter K., 2006. "Multi-product firms and product switching," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3687, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    21. Rauch, James E. & Watson, Joel, 2003. "Starting small in an unfamiliar environment," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 1021-1042, September.
    22. Bricongne, Jean-Charles & Fontagné, Lionel & Gaulier, Guillaume & Taglioni, Daria & Vicard, Vincent, 2012. "Firms and the global crisis: French exports in the turmoil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 134-146.
    23. Alex Edmans & Gustavo Manso, 2011. "Governance Through Trading and Intervention: A Theory of Multiple Blockholders," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(7), pages 2395-2428.
    24. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2007. "Firms in International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 105-130, Summer.
    25. Ju, Jiandong & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2011. "When is quality of financial system a source of comparative advantage?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 178-187, July.
    26. Minetti, Raoul & Zhu, Susan Chun, 2011. "Credit constraints and firm export: Microeconomic evidence from Italy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 109-125, March.
    27. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2004. "Why Some Firms Export," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 561-569, May.
    28. Bricongne, Jean-Charles & Fontagné, Lionel & Gaulier, Guillaume & Taglioni, Daria & Vicard, Vincent, 2012. "Firms and the global crisis: French exports in the turmoil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 134-146.
    29. Andrew B. Bernard & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2011. "Multiproduct Firms and Trade Liberalization," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 126(3), pages 1271-1318.
    30. Wolfgang Hess & Maria Persson, 2012. "The duration of trade revisited," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 1083-1107, December.
    31. Luis Araujo & Emanuel Ornelas, 2005. "Trust-Based Trade," IBMEC RJ Economics Discussion Papers 2005-08, Economics Research Group, IBMEC Business School - Rio de Janeiro.
    32. Muûls, Mirabelle, 2015. "Exporters, importers and credit constraints," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 333-343.
    33. Békés, Gábor & Muraközy, Balázs, 2012. "Temporary trade and heterogeneous firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 232-246.
    34. Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A., 2007. "Comparative advantage, demand for external finance, and financial development," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 796-834, December.
    35. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Financial Dependence and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 559-586, June.
    36. Alberto Amurgo-Pacheco, Martha Denisse Pierola, 2007. "Patterns of export diversification in developing countries: intensive and extensive margins," IHEID Working Papers 20-2007, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, revised Jul 2007.
    37. Kroszner, Randall S. & Laeven, Luc & Klingebiel, Daniela, 2007. "Banking crises, financial dependence, and growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 187-228, April.
    38. Levine, Ross, 2002. "Bank-Based or Market-Based Financial Systems: Which Is Better?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 398-428, October.
    39. Holger Görg & Marina-Eliza Spaliara, 2014. "Financial Health, Exports and Firm Survival: Evidence from UK and French Firms," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 81(323), pages 419-444, July.
    40. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2002. "Funding growth in bank-based and market-based financial systems: evidence from firm-level data," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 337-363, September.
    41. Fenghua Song & AnjanV. Thakor, 2010. "Financial System Architecture and the Co-evolution of Banks and Capital Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 120(547), pages 1021-1055, September.
    42. Chor, Davin & Manova, Kalina, 2012. "Off the cliff and back? Credit conditions and international trade during the global financial crisis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 117-133.
    43. Beck, Thorsten, 2002. "Financial development and international trade: Is there a link?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 107-131, June.
    44. Ben-Nasr, Hamdi, 2016. "State and foreign ownership and the value of working capital management," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 217-240.
    45. Stijn Claessens & Luc Laeven, 2003. "Financial Development, Property Rights, and Growth," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2401-2436, December.
    46. Raddatz, Claudio, 2006. "Liquidity needs and vulnerability to financial underdevelopment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 677-722, June.
    47. Roberto Alvarez & Ricardo A. López, 2008. "Entry and Exit in International Markets: Evidence from Chilean Data," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 692-708, September.
    48. Bo Becker & Jinzhu Chen & David Greenberg, 2013. "Financial Development, Fixed Costs, and International Trade," The Review of Corporate Finance Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 2(1), pages 1-28.
    49. Svaleryd, Helena & Vlachos, Jonas, 2005. "Financial markets, the pattern of industrial specialization and comparative advantage: Evidence from OECD countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 113-144, January.
    50. Zeidan, Rodrigo & Shapir, Offer Moshe, 2017. "Cash conversion cycle and value-enhancing operations: Theory and evidence for a free lunch," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 203-219.
    51. Tibor Besedeš, 2013. "The Role of NAFTA and Returns to Scale in Export Duration," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo Group, vol. 59(2), pages 306-336, June.
    52. Adriano A. Rampini & S. Viswanathan, 2010. "Collateral, Risk Management, and the Distribution of Debt Capacity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(6), pages 2293-2322, December.
    53. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross, 2002. "Industry growth and capital allocation:*1: does having a market- or bank-based system matter?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 147-180, May.
    54. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1992. "Liquidation Values and Debt Capacity: A Market Equilibrium Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1343-1366, September.
    55. Nathan Nunn, 2007. "Relationship-Specificity, Incomplete Contracts, and the Pattern of Trade," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 122(2), pages 569-600.
    56. Araujo, Luis & Mion, Giordano & Ornelas, Emanuel, 2016. "Institutions and export dynamics," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 2-20.
    57. John Romalis, 2004. "Factor Proportions and the Structure of Commodity Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 67-97, March.
    58. Hsu, Po-Hsuan & Tian, Xuan & Xu, Yan, 2014. "Financial development and innovation: Cross-country evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 116-135.
    59. Tibor Besedes, 2006. "A Search Cost Perspective on Duration of Trade," Departmental Working Papers 2006-12, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
    60. Besedes, Tibor & Prusa, Thomas J., 2011. "The role of extensive and intensive margins and export growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 371-379, November.
    61. Mayer,Colin & Vives,Xavier (ed.), 1993. "Capital Markets and Financial Intermediation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521443975, November.
    62. Sarah Bridges & Alessandra Guariglia, 2008. "Financial Constraints, Global Engagement, And Firm Survival In The United Kingdom: Evidence From Micro Data," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 55(4), pages 444-464, September.
    63. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2010. "Financial Institutions and Markets across Countries and over Time: The Updated Financial Development and Structure Database," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank, vol. 24(1), pages 77-92, January.
    64. Hur, Jung & Raj, Manoj & Riyanto, Yohanes E., 2006. "Finance and trade: A cross-country empirical analysis on the impact of financial development and asset tangibility on international trade," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1728-1741, October.
    65. Shen, Chung-Hua & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2006. "Same Financial Development Yet Different Economic Growth: Why?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(7), pages 1907-1944, October.
    66. Manova, Kalina, 2008. "Credit constraints, equity market liberalizations and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 33-47, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Melise Jaud & Madina Kukenova & Martin Strieborny, 2015. "Financial Development and Sustainable Exports: Evidence from Firm-product Data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(7), pages 1090-1114, July.
    2. Yang, Bixuan & Asche, Frank & Anderson, James L., 2019. "Trade dynamics and duration of Chinese food imports," 2019 Annual Meeting, July 21-23, Atlanta, Georgia 291085, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    3. Joachim Wagner, 2014. "Credit constraints and exports: evidence for German manufacturing enterprises," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 294-302, January.
    4. Melise Jaud & Madina Kukenova & Martin Strieborny, 2018. "Finance, Comparative Advantage, and Resource Allocation," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 22(3), pages 1011-1061.
    5. Melise Jaud & Madina Kukenova & Martin Strieborny, 2018. "Finance, Comparative Advantage, and Resource Allocation," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 22(3), pages 1011-1061.
    6. Besedeš, Tibor & Kim, Byung-Cheol & Lugovskyy, Volodymyr, 2014. "Export growth and credit constraints," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 350-370.
    7. repec:ath:journl:tome:31:v:3:y:2013:i:31:p:39-53 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Besedes, Tibor, 2011. "Export differentiation in transition economies," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 25-44, March.
    9. Tibor Besedeš, 2013. "The Role of NAFTA and Returns to Scale in Export Duration," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo Group, vol. 59(2), pages 306-336, June.
    10. Besedes, Tibor & Prusa, Thomas J., 2011. "The role of extensive and intensive margins and export growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 371-379, November.
    11. Straume, Hans-Martin & Asche, Frank, 2015. "Duration and temporary trade," Working Papers in Economics 04/15, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    12. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "Credit Constraints and Exports: A Survey of Empirical Studies Using Firm Level Data," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 12, pages 401-421, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    13. Melise Jaud & Madina Kukenova & Martin Strieborny, 2021. "Stock Market Liberalizations and Export Dynamics," Working Papers 2021_15, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
    14. Tibor Besedeš & Thomas J. Prusa, 2013. "Antidumping and the Death of Trade," NBER Working Papers 19555, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Alessandro Nicita & Miho Shirotori & Bolormaa Tumurchudur Klok, 2013. "Survival Analysis Of The Exports Of Least Developed Countries: The Role Of Comparative Advantage," UNCTAD Blue Series Papers 54, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    16. Holger Görg & Richard Kneller & Balázs Muraközy, 2012. "What makes a successful export? Evidence from firm‐product‐ level data," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 45(4), pages 1332-1368, November.
    17. Ngoc Thang Doan & Thanh Ha Le, 2024. "On the relationship between trade credit and export survival," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 363-383, May.
    18. Nitsch, Volker & Besedes, Tibor, 2013. "Trade Integration and the Fragility of Trade Relationships: A Product Level Perspective," VfS Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79977, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    19. Asche, Frank & Cojocaru, Andreea L. & Gaasland, Ivar & Straume, Hans-Martin, 2018. "Cod stories: Trade dynamics and duration for Norwegian cod exports," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 12(C), pages 71-79.
    20. Pişkin, Erhan, 2017. "Türkiye İhracatının Ölüm-Kalım Meselesi [The Matter of Survival for Turkish Exports]," MPRA Paper 81459, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Iacovone, Leonardo & Ferro, Esteban & Pereira-López, Mariana & Zavacka, Veronika, 2019. "Banking crises and exports: Lessons from the past," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 192-204.
    2. Muûls, Mirabelle, 2015. "Exporters, importers and credit constraints," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 333-343.
    3. Li, Jie & Ouyang, Zhigang & Zhang, Naixin, 2023. "Processing trade and credit constraints," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 83(C).
    4. Laura D'Amato & Máximo Sangiácomo & Martin Tobal, 2020. "Export survival and foreign financing," BIS Working Papers 877, Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Crinò, Rosario & Ogliari, Laura, 2015. "Financial Frictions, Product Quality, and International Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 10555, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Pişkin, Erhan, 2017. "Türkiye İhracatının Ölüm-Kalım Meselesi [The Matter of Survival for Turkish Exports]," MPRA Paper 81459, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Federico J. Diez & Jesse Mora & Alan C. Spearot, 2016. "Firms in international trade," Working Papers 16-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    8. Melise Jaud & Madina Kukenova & Martin Strieborny, 2015. "Financial Development and Sustainable Exports: Evidence from Firm-product Data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(7), pages 1090-1114, July.
    9. Kwan Yong Lee, 2023. "Financial dependence and exports: Entrants or incumbents?," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 89(4), pages 1102-1137, April.
    10. Popov, Alexander, 2017. "Evidence on finance and economic growth," Working Paper Series 2115, European Central Bank.
    11. Kalina Manova, 2013. "Credit Constraints, Heterogeneous Firms, and International Trade," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 80(2), pages 711-744.
    12. Chor, Davin & Manova, Kalina, 2012. "Off the cliff and back? Credit conditions and international trade during the global financial crisis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 117-133.
    13. Kalina Manova & Zhiwei Zhang, 2008. "China's exporters and importers: firms, products, and trade partners," Working Paper Series 2008-28, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    14. Claessens, Stijn & van Horen, Neeltje, 2021. "Foreign banks and trade," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 45(C).
    15. Amissah, Emmanuel & Bougheas, Spiros & Defever, Fabrice & Falvey, Rod, 2021. "Financial system architecture and the patterns of international trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    16. Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Tim, 2013. "Towards a theory of trade finance," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 96-112.
    17. Li, Jie & Lan, Liping & Ouyang, Zhigang, 2020. "Credit constraints, currency depreciation and international trade," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 104(C).
    18. Besedeš, Tibor & Kim, Byung-Cheol & Lugovskyy, Volodymyr, 2014. "Export growth and credit constraints," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 350-370.
    19. Crinò, Rosario & Ogliari, Laura, 2017. "Financial imperfections, product quality, and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 63-84.
    20. Martin Strieborny & Madina Kukenova, 2016. "Investment in Relationship-Specific Assets: Does Finance Matter?," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 20(4), pages 1487-1515.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    finance and export survival; transmission from finance to real economy; banks versus stock markets;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gla:glaewp:2021_14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Business School Research Team (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dpglauk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.