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Financial Constraints and Foreign Market Entries or Exits: Firm Level Evidence from France

  • Askenazy, Philippe
  • Caldera, Aida
  • Gaulier, Guillaume
  • Irac, Delphine

This paper studies the effect of credit constraints on the expansion and survival of firms in foreign markets. It develops a model of the multi-country firm, in which, lower access to external finance, or reduced internal liquidity, hampers the firm ability to finance the recurrent costs to serve foreign markets and decreases firm survival in foreign markets. Additionally, financial constraints act as a barrier to firm export expansion by decreasing the firm ability to finance the entry costs into new export markets; thus, they push firm to avoid losing destinations and by the same token may increase firm survival in a given foreign market. We use a unique longitudinal dataset on French firms that contains information on export destinations of individual firms and allows us to construct various firm-level measures of financial constraints to test these predictions. We obtain two main results. First, credit constraints have a negative effect on the number of newly served destinations. Second, higher probability of exit from the export market is also associated with credit constraints. This seems to suggest that, no less than an issue of financing entry costs, credit constraints bear upon the recurrent costs of survival in an existing destination and strongly affect the firms’portfolio of destinations by this token.

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File URL: http://www.cepremap.fr/depot/docweb/docweb1112.pdf
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Paper provided by CEPREMAP in its series CEPREMAP Working Papers (Docweb) with number 1112.

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Length: 22 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cpm:docweb:1112
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  1. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Stefano Schiavo, 2010. "Financial Constraints and Firm Export Behavior," Post-Print halshs-00720196, HAL.
  2. Buono, Ines & Fadinger, Harald & Berger, Stefan, 2008. "The Micro Dynamics of Exporting: Evidence from French Firms," MPRA Paper 12940, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Sanghamitra Das & Mark J. Roberts & James R. Tybout, 2001. "Market entry costs, producer heterogeneity and export dynamics," Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers 03-10, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
  4. Stephen Redding, 2010. "Theories of heterogeneous firms and trade," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 48908, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  5. Bricongne, Jean-Charles & Fontagné, Lionel & Gaulier, Guillaume & Taglioni, Daria & Vicard, Vincent, 2012. "Firms and the global crisis: French exports in the turmoil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 134-146.
  6. Vlad Manole & Mariana Spatareanu, 2009. "Exporting, Capital Investment and Financial Constraints," LICOS Discussion Papers 25209, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  7. Aghion, Philippe & Askenazy, Philippe & Berman, Nicolas & Cette, Gilbert & Eymard, Laurent, 2012. "Credit Constraints and the Cyclicality of R&D Investment: Evidence from France," Scholarly Articles 27759621, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  8. Christian Arndt & Claudia M. Buch & Anselm Mattes, 2012. "Disentangling barriers to internationalization," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(1), pages 41-63, February.
  9. Greenaway, David & Guariglia, Alessandra & Kneller, Richard, 2007. "Financial factors and exporting decisions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 377-395, November.
  10. Marc Auboin & Martina Engemann, 2014. "Testing the trade credit and trade link: evidence from data on export credit insurance," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(4), pages 715-743, November.
  11. Berman, Nicolas & Héricourt, Jérôme, 2010. "Financial factors and the margins of trade: Evidence from cross-country firm-level data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 206-217, November.
  12. Claudia Buch & Iris Kesternich & Alexander Lipponer & Monika Schnitzer, 2014. "Financial constraints and foreign direct investment: firm-level evidence," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(2), pages 393-420, May.
  13. repec:pse:psecon:2008-26 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Irac, D., 2008. "Access to new imported varieties and total factor productivity: Firm level evidence from France," Working papers 204, Banque de France.
  15. Love, Inessa & Preve, Lorenzo A. & Sarria-Allende, Virginia, 2007. "Trade credit and bank credit: Evidence from recent financial crises," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 453-469, February.
  16. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
  17. Logan Lewis & Linda Tesar & Andrei Levchenko, 2010. "The Collapse of International Trade During the 2008-2009 Crisis: In Search of the Smoking Gun," 2010 Meeting Papers 109, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  18. Campa, Jose M. & Shaver, J. Myles, 2002. "Exporting and capital investment: On the strategic behavior of exporters," IESE Research Papers D/469, IESE Business School.
  19. Mary Amiti & David E. Weinstein, 2011. "Exports and Financial Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(4), pages 1841-1877.
  20. Steven M. Fazzari & Bruce C. Petersen, 1993. "Working Capital and Fixed Investment: New Evidence on Financing Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(3), pages 328-342, Autumn.
  21. Roberts, Mark J & Tybout, James R, 1997. "The Decision to Export in Colombia: An Empirical Model of Entry with Sunk Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 545-64, September.
  22. Mark J. Melitz, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," NBER Working Papers 8881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  24. Minetti, Raoul & Zhu, Susan Chun, 2011. "Credit constraints and firm export: Microeconomic evidence from Italy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 109-125, March.
  25. Christian Arndt & Claudia Buch & Anselm Mattes, 2009. "Barriers to Internationalization: Firm-Level Evidence from Germany," IAW Discussion Papers 52, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
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