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Disentangling barriers to internationalization

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  • Christian Arndt
  • Claudia M. Buch
  • Anselm Mattes

Abstract

. Recent literature on multinational firms has focused on low productivity as a barrier to the internationalization of firms. But labour market frictions or financial constraints may also hamper internationalization. In order to assess the importance of these barriers, we present new empirical evidence on the extensive and intensive margin of exports and foreign direct investment (FDI) based on micro‐level data of German firms. First, we find a positive impact of firm size and productivity on firms’ international activities. Second, labour market frictions can constitute barriers to foreign activities. Third, self‐reported financial constraints have no impact on firms’ internationalization decisions. JEL classification: F23, G2 La littérature récente sur les firmes plurinationales a mis l’accent sur la faible productivité en tant que barrière à l’internationalisation des firmes. Mais les frictions dans le marché du travail et les contraintes financières peuvent aussi nuire à l’internationalisation. Afin d’évaluer l’importance de ces diverses barrières, on présente de nouvelles données empiriques (micro‐données sur des firmes allemandes) sur les marges intensives et extensives des exportations et de l’investissement direct à l’étranger. D’abord, on découvre un impact positif de la taille de la firme et de sa productivité sur ses activités internationales. Ensuite, les frictions dans le marché du travail peuvent constituer des barrières aux activités internationales. Enfin, les contraintes financières telles que les firmes les rapportent elles‐mêmes ne semblent pas avoir d’impact sur les décisions d’internationalisation.

Suggested Citation

  • Christian Arndt & Claudia M. Buch & Anselm Mattes, 2012. "Disentangling barriers to internationalization," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 45(1), pages 41-63, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:canjec:v:45:y:2012:i:1:p:41-63
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5982.2011.01686.x
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Buch, Claudia M. & Toubal, Farid, 2009. "Openness and growth: The long shadow of the Berlin Wall," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 409-422, September.
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    6. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Stefano Schiavo, 2010. "Financial Constraints and Firm Export Behaviour," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(3), pages 347-373, March.
    7. Mary Amiti & David E. Weinstein, 2011. "Exports and Financial Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(4), pages 1841-1877.
    8. Greenaway, David & Guariglia, Alessandra & Kneller, Richard, 2007. "Financial factors and exporting decisions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 377-395, November.
    9. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Joachim Wagner, 2014. "Credit constraints and exports: evidence for German manufacturing enterprises," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 294-302, January.
    2. Juan A. Máñez Castillejo & Oscar Vicente-Chirivella, 2019. "Exports of Spanish manufacturing firms and financial constraints," Working Papers 1921, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
    3. Vijay Narayanan, 2015. "Export Barriers for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: A Literature Review based on Leonidou’s Model," Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, Centre for Strategic and International Entrepreneurship at the Cracow University of Economics., vol. 3(2), pages 105-123.
    4. Angelo Secchi & Federico Tamagni & Chiara Tomasi, 2016. "Financial constraints and firm exports: accounting for heterogeneity, self-selection, and endogeneity," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(5), pages 813-827.
    5. Wagner, Joachim & Gelübcke, John P. Weche, 2013. "Credit Constraints, Foreign Ownership, and Foreign Takeovers in Germany," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 329, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    6. Philippe Askenazy & Aida Caldera & Guillaume Gaulier & Delphine Irac, 2015. "Financial constraints and foreign market entries or exits: firm-level evidence from France," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 151(2), pages 231-253, May.
    7. Nadine Levratto & Clarisse Nguedam Ntouko & Maarouf Ramadan, 2017. "Institutions and firms’ internationalization: an empirical analysis on three Middle East countries," EconomiX Working Papers 2017-37, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    8. Vogel , Alexander & Wagner, Joachim, 2012. "Innovation and Exports of German Business Services Enterprises: First evidence from a new type of firm data," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 285, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    9. Fauceglia, Dario, 2015. "Credit constraints, firm exports and financial development: Evidence from developing countries," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 53-66.
    10. Wagner, Joachim, 2015. "Credit constraints and the extensive margins of exports: First evidence for German manufacturing," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 9, pages 1-17.
    11. Tobias Brändle, 2015. "Is offshoring linked to offshoring potential? Evidence from German linked employer–employee data," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 151(4), pages 735-766, November.
    12. Joachim Wagner, 2014. "Credit constraints and exports: a survey of empirical studies using firm-level data," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(6), pages 1477-1492.
    13. Kyriakos Drivas & Margarita Katsimi, 2019. "Firm Heterogeneity and Exports: Stylized Facts from Greek Firms," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 47(2), pages 137-145, June.
    14. Pavla Breckova, 2018. "Export Patterns of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1), pages 43-51.
    15. Schwiebert, Jörg & Wagner, Joachim, 2015. "A Generalized Two-Part Model for Fractional Response Variables with Excess Zeros," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113059, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    16. Joachim Wagner & John P. Weche Gelübcke, 2015. "Access to finance, foreign ownership and foreign takeovers in Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(29), pages 3092-3112, June.
    17. Federica Sist, 2014. "Financial Needs of Internationalized Firms," International Journal of Financial Research, International Journal of Financial Research, Sciedu Press, vol. 5(4), pages 171-179, October.
    18. Marina Gigliotti & Massimo Cossignani & Antonio Picciotti, 2019. "Why Enterprises Do Not Invest in Europe? Management Claims and Countries Conditions in Developed and Emerging Markets," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 10(4), pages 1738-1764, December.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services

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