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Trade Liberalization, Profitability, and Financial Leverage

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  • Baggs, Jennifer
  • Brander, James A.

Abstract

We investigate whether trade liberalization affects profitability and financial leverage, using Canadian data from the period following implementation of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. We find that falling domestic tariffs are associated with declining profits and increasing leverage for import-competing firms, while falling foreign tariffs are associated with increasing profits and decreasing leverage for firms in export-oriented industries. This pattern is consistent with the "pecking order" theory of capital structure.

Suggested Citation

  • Baggs, Jennifer & Brander, James A., 2005. "Trade Liberalization, Profitability, and Financial Leverage," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2005256e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  • Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:2005256e
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:eee:corfin:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:522-539 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Jen Baggs & Eugene Beaulieu & Loretta Fung & Beverly Lapham, 2016. "Firm Dynamics in Retail Trade: The Response of Canadian Retailers to Exchange Rate Shocks," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 635-666, August.
    3. Moser, Christoph & Rose, Andrew K., 2014. "Who benefits from regional trade agreements? The view from the stock market," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 31-47.
    4. Breinlich, Holger, 2008. "Trade liberalization and industrial restructuring through mergers and acquisitions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 254-266, December.
    5. Joliet, Robert & Muller, Aline, 2013. "Capital structure effects of international expansion," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 375-393.
    6. Nakhoda, Aadil, 2012. "The influence of financial leverage of firms on their international trading activities," MPRA Paper 35765, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Breinlich, Holger, 2015. "The Effect of Trade Liberalization on Firm-Level Profits: An Event-Study Approach," CEPR Discussion Papers 11011, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. repec:clg:wpaper:2007-04 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Jen Baggs & Eugene Beaulieu & Loretta Fung, 2010. "Are Service Firms Affected By Exchange Rate Movements?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(s1), pages 156-176, June.
    10. Moon, Joonho & Lee, Won Seok & Dattilo, John, 2015. "Determinants of the payout decision in the airline industry," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 282-288.
    11. Seyoum, Belay, 2007. "Trade liberalization and patterns of strategic adjustment in the US textiles and clothing industry," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 109-135, February.
    12. repec:spr:manint:v:53:y:2013:i:2:d:10.1007_s11575-012-0143-2 is not listed on IDEAS

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    Keywords

    Business adaptation and adjustment; Business performance and ownership; Financial statements and performance; International trade; Trade patterns;

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