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Growth Diagnostics in Pakistan

  • Abdul Qayyum

    (PIDE)

  • Idrees Khawaja
  • Asma Hyder

Following the Hausmann, et al. (2005) methodology, we attempt to identify the constraints to growth in Pakistan. We argue that governance failure and institutional shortcomings are the heart of the matter : corruption is rampant, judicial independence is low, educational institutions do not furnish the right kind of labour force, legal institutions do not protect the lenders against loan defaults, ambiguous land titles constrain mortgage financing and construction activity, labour market institutions restrict hiring/firing, State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has not done its duty to contain the rising interest spread, and SECP/stock market has not played its due role in the transfer of funds from savers to investors. We identify three binding constraints to growth in Pakistan. These are : (i) poor state of governance, (ii) poor state of institutions, and (iii) lack of competitive environment (that restricts innovation and hence growth). Without improving the state of governance and that of institutions, sustainable growth cannot occur even if other factors, like a reasonable savings rate, are put in place.

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Paper provided by East Asian Bureau of Economic Research in its series Development Economics Working Papers with number 22218.

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Date of creation: Jan 2008
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Handle: RePEc:eab:develo:22218
Contact details of provider: Postal: JG Crawford Building #13, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, ACT 0200
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  1. Abdul Hafeez Shaikh, 2006. "Towards Reorientating the Role of the Government in Pakistan (The Quaid-i-Azam Lecture)," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(4), pages 537-554.
  2. Hyder, Asma, 2007. "Wage Differentials, Rate of Return toEducation, and Occupational WageShare in the Labour Market of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Alicia H. Munnell, 1990. "Why has productivity growth declined? Productivity and public investment," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Jan, pages 3-22.
  4. David Aschauer, 1988. "Does public capital crowd out private capital?," Staff Memoranda 88-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  5. Abdul Qayyum & A. R. Kemal, 2006. "Volatility Spillover between the Stock Market and the Foreign Market in Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2006:7, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
  6. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Swaroop, Vinaya & Heng-fu, Zou, 1996. "The composition of public expenditure and economic growth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 313-344, April.
  7. Dani Rodrik, 2006. "Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Washington Confusion? A Review of the World Bank's Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 44(4), pages 973-987, December.
  8. Mankiw, N Gregory & Romer, David & Weil, David N, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-37, May.
  9. Randall W. Eberts, 1990. "Public infrastructure and regional economic development," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q I, pages 15-27.
  10. Bruno Biais & Peter Bossaerts & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2002. "An Optimal IPO Mechanism," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(1), pages 117-146.
  11. World Bank & International Finance Corporation, 2006. "Doing Business in 2006 : Creating Jobs," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7421, December.
  12. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas, 1994. "Public-Sector Capital and the Productivity Puzzle," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(1), pages 12-21, February.
  13. Zafar Mueen Nasir, 1998. "Determinants of Personal Earnings in Pakistan: Findings from the Labour Force Survey 1993-94," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(3), pages 251-274.
  14. Ernst R. Berndt & Bengt Hansson, 1991. "Measuring the Contribution of Public Infrastructure Capital in Sweden," NBER Working Papers 3842, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Akerlof, George A, 1970. "The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500, August.
  16. David Aschauer, 1988. "Is public expenditure productive?," Staff Memoranda 88-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  17. Qayyum, Abdul & Kemal, A. R., 2006. "Volatility Spillover Between the Stock Market and the Foreign Exchange Market in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 1715, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  18. Stephen Guisinger & Mohammad Irfan, 1974. "Real Wages of Industrial Workers in Pakistan: 1954 to 1970," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 13(4), pages 363-388.
  19. Shantayanan Devarajan & Vinaya Swaroop & Heng-fu Zou, 1993. "What do governments buy?," CEMA Working Papers 513, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
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