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Informatique, organisation du travail et interactions sociales

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  • Nathalie Greenan
  • Emmanuelle Walkowiak

Abstract

[ger] Informatik, Arbeitsorganisation und soziale Wechselwirkungen. Die komplementären Beziehungen zwischen einerseits Einsatz der Informatik und innovativen Organisationspraktiken und andererseits den Auswahlprinzipien, die ihrer Verbreitung auf der Ebene der Workstations zugrunde liegen, müssen in einem einheitlichen Rahmen analysiert werden. Die gemeinsamen Prinzipien bei der Auswahl der Informatik und das organisatorische Design der Workstation hängen von der Konfi guration des Netzes sozialer Wechselwirkungen innerhalb eines Betriebs ab. Diese soziale Struktur der Wechselwirkung wird mit Bezug auf das Konzept des Gesellschaftskapitals (Humankapital, zu dem ein Einzelner Zugang haben kann, wenn er mit anderen zusammenarbeitet) analysiert. Da dieses nicht direkt gemessen werden kann, gehen wir davon aus, dass es eine Rolle spielt, wenn die kategorielle Zugehörigkeit des Arbeitnehmers oder die soziodemographische Zusammensetzung der Arbeitskräfte des Unternehmens die Modernisierung der Workstations beeinfl ussen. Unterschieden wird dann bei der Komplementarität von Technologie und Organisation zwischen dem, was eine reine Koordinierung der Entscheidungen bei diesen beiden Dimensionen darstellt, und dem, was als Wahl der Arbeitnehmer zu betrachten ist. Die anhand der Teils "Arbeitnehmer“ der Untersuchung Organisatorische Veränderungen und Informatik von 1997 durchgeführten Tests ermöglichen eine Überprüfung zweier Annahmen. Zum einen fördert das Gesellschaftskapital der Arbeitnehmer deren Zugang zu den Computern und ganz allgemein zu den Informations-und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) sowie zu den Workstations mit innovativen Produktions-und Informationsmerkmalen. Zum anderen lassen sich die komplementären Beziehungen, die man an der Workstation zwischen dem Einsatz der IKT und den innovativen Organisationsmerkmalen misst, zum Teil mit diesem gemeinsamen Grundsatz der Selektion durch das Gesellschaftskapital bei der technologischen und organisatorischen Modernisierung erklären, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die innovativen Organisationsmerkmale, die eine zwischenmenschliche Dimension beinhalten, und die Workstations, die mit gering qualifizierten Arbeitnehmern besetzt sind. [fre] Les liens de complémentarité entre usage de l'informatique et pratiques organisationnelles innovantes, d'une part, et les principes de sélection qui sous-tendent leur diffusion au niveau des postes de travail, d'autre part, doivent être analysés dans un cadre unifié. Les principes communs de sélection dans l'attribution de l'informatique et le design organisationnel du poste de travail renvoient au choix de la configuration du réseau d'interactions sociales au sein de la firme. Cette structure sociale d'interaction est analysée en référence au concept de capital social (capital humain auquel un individu peut accéder lorsqu'il interagit avec d'autres). Ne pouvant directement le mesurer, nous supposons qu'il joue un rôle lorsque les appartenances catégorielles du salarié ou la composition socio-démographique de la main-d'oeuvre de l'entreprise influencent la modernisation des postes de travail. On distingue alors dans la complémentarité entre technologie et organisation ce qui relève d'une pure coordination des choix dans ces deux dimensions de ce qui relève de la sélection des salariés. Les tests menés à partir du volet « salariés » de l'enquête Changements Organisationnels et l'Informatisation de 1997 permettent de vérifier deux propositions. Tout d'abord, le capital social des salariés favorise leur accès aux ordinateurs et plus généralement aux technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) et aux postes de travail dont les caractéristiques productives et informationnelles sont innovantes. Ensuite, les liens de complémentarité que l'on mesure sur le poste de travail entre usage des TIC et caractéristiques organisationnelles innovantes s'expliquent en partie par ce principe commun de sélection par le capital social dans la modernisation technologique et organisationnelle, en particulier pour les caractéristiques organisationnelles innovantes qui intègrent une dimension relationnelle et pour les postes de travail occupés par les salariés peu qualifiés. [eng] Information technology, work organisation and social interactions. The complementarity between the use of information technology and innovative organisational practices, on the one hand, and the selection principles that guide their diffusion at the work post level, on the other hand, must be analysed in a unified framework. The common selection principles governing the allocation of information technology and the organisational design of the work posts are connected to the choice of the network confi guration of social interactions within the company. This interactive social structure is analysed with reference to the concept of social capital” (human capital which an individual can access when interacting with others). Unable to directly measure it, we assume that it plays a role when the group memberships of the workers or the socio-demographic composition of the company’s workforce infl uence the modernisation of the work stations. Therefore, in the complementarity between technology and organisation we can distinguish between that which derives from a pure coordination of choices in these two dimensions from that which derives from the selection process of workers. The tests conducted within the "labour force” section of the 1997 survey Changements Organisationnels et l’Informatisation” (Organisational Change and Computerisation) allow two propositions to be verifi ed. Firstly, the social capital of workers favours their access to computers and more generally to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and to work posts with innovative productive and informational characteristics. Secondly, the complementarity that is measured in the work post between the use of ICT and the innovative organisational characteristics is explained in part by this social capital common selection principle in the technological and organisational modernisation, in particular for the innovative organisational characteristics which integrate a relational dimension and for work posts occupied by the less qualifi ed workers. [spa] Informática, organización del trabajo e interacciones sociales. Las relaciones de complementariedad entre, por una parte, el uso de la informática y las prácticas de organización innovadoras y, por otra parte, los principios de selección que apoyan su difusión en los puestos de trabajo, se deben analizar en un marco unifi cado. Los principios comunes de selección en la atribución de la informática y el diseño de organización del puesto de trabajo llevan a la elección de la confi guración de la red de interacciones sociales en la empresa. Esta estructura social de interacción se analiza en relación con el concepto de capital social (capital humano al que puede acceder un individuo cuando interactúa con otros). Al no poder medirlo directamente, suponemos que juega un papel cuando las posesiones de categorías del empleado o la composición socio-demográfi ca de la mano de obra de la empresa infl uyen en la modernización de los puestos de trabajo. En la complementariedad se distingue entonces entre tecnología y organización, lo que deriva de una pura coordinación de las elecciones en estas dos dimensiones de lo que deriva de la selección de los empleados. Los estudios llevados a cabo a partir de la parte «empleados» de la encuesta . Cambios de Organización y la Informatización de 1997 permiten verifi car dos propuestas. En primer lugar, el capital social de los empleados favorece su acceso a los ordenadores y en general a las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC) y a los puestos de trabajo cuyas características productivas y de información son innovadoras. En segundo lugar, las relaciones de complementariedad que se miden en el puesto de trabajo entre el uso de los TIC y las características de organización innovadoras se explican en parte por este principio común de selección por el capital social en la modernización tecnológica y de organización, en particular para las características de organización innovadoras que integran una dimensión de relación y para los puestos de trabajo ocupados por empleados poco cualificados.

Suggested Citation

  • Nathalie Greenan & Emmanuelle Walkowiak, 2005. "Informatique, organisation du travail et interactions sociales," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 387(1), pages 35-63.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2005_num_387_1_7179
    DOI: 10.3406/estat.2005.7179
    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2005.7179
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    Cited by:

    1. Amel ATTOUR, 2012. "Le développement des TIC dans et par les collectivités locales françaises: une analyse à travers les trois dimensions interdépendantes d’un territoire numérique THE DEVELOPMENT OF ICT IN AND FROM FREN," Working Papers 24, Réseau de Recherche sur l’Innovation. / Research Network on Innovation.
    2. Nathalie Greenan & Emmanuelle Walkowiak, 2005. "Informatique, organisation du travail et interactions sociales," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 387(1), pages 35-63.
    3. Mohamed Ali Ben Halima & Nathalie Greenan & Joseph Lanfranchi, 2021. "Organisational changes and long-term sickness absence and injury leave: a difference in difference approach," TEPP Working Paper 2021-05, TEPP.
    4. Nathalie Greenan & Edward Lorenz, 2009. "Learning Organisations: the importance of work organisation for innovation," Working Papers halshs-01376968, HAL.
    5. Gerten, Elisa & Beckmann, Michael & Bellmann, Lutz, 2018. "Controlling working crowds: The impact of digitalization on worker autonomy and monitoring across hierarchical levels," Working papers 2018/09, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    6. Philippe Zamora, 2006. "Changements organisationnels, technologiques et recours à la formation dans les entreprises industrielles," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 57(6), pages 1235-1257.
    7. Emmanuelle Walkowiak, 2006. "Renouvellement de la main-d'œuvre et modernisation des entreprises," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 57(6), pages 1205-1233.
    8. Danielle Galliano & Pascale Roux, 2006. "Les inégalités spatiales dans l'usage des tic. Le cas des firmes industrielles françaises," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 57(6), pages 1449-1475.
    9. Ludivine Martin, 2011. "The effects of ICT use on employee's motivations: an empirical evaluation," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(2), pages 1592-1605.
    10. Jacques, Jean-François & Walkowiak, Emmanuelle, 2009. "Low wages and high unemployment rates: The role of social interactions in hiring discrimination," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 456-463, June.
    11. Aissaoui, Najeh & Ben Hassen, Lobna, 2015. "Skill-biased Technological Change, E-skills and Wage Inequality: Evidence from Tunisia," MPRA Paper 76551, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 Jun 2015.

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    JEL classification:

    • L23 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Organization of Production
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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