Modeling the relationship between European carbon permits and certified emission reductions
Recent years have seen an expansion of carbon markets around the world as various policymakers attempt to reduce CO2 emissions. This paper considers two of the major types of carbon permits: European Union Allowances (EUAs, arising from the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, EU ETS) and certified emissions reductions (CERs, arising from agreements made under the Kyoto Protocol). The rules of the EU ETS allow for some use of CERs in place of EUAs by EU firms, but this substitutability is only partial. Allowing for carbon permits from different sources to substitute for one another should help achieve CO2 emissions reductions at least cost. Understanding the degree and nature of linkages (if any) between the markets for EUAs and CER is, thus, an important policy issue. In this paper, we jointly model the spot and future prices of an EUA along with the price of a CER using flexible multivariate time series methods which allow for time-variation in parameters. We find evidence of contemporaneous causality between these three variables with the EUA futures price playing the dominant role in driving this relationship. We also document time-variation in this relationship which is associated with macroeconomic events such as the financial crisis of late 2008 and early 2009. We find very little evidence of volatility spillovers or of Granger causality among any of the variables. We discuss how these empirical findings are consistent with markets which are loosely linked, but are not tightly linked as would be found for perfectly substitutable assets in efficient financial markets.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Davide Ciferri & Alessandro Girardi, 2010.
"Time-Varying Spot and Futures Oil Price Dynamics,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
3015, CESifo Group Munich.
- Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Davide Ciferri & Allessandro Girardi, 2010. "Time-Varying Spot and Futures Oil Price Dynamics," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 988, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Guglielmo Caporale & Davide Ciferri & Alessandro Girardi, 2010. "Time-varying spot and futures oil price dynamics," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 75/2010, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
- Mizrach, Bruce & Otsubo, Yoichi, 2014.
"The market microstructure of the European climate exchange,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 107-116.
- Bruce Mizrach & Yoichi Otsubo, 2010. "The Market Microstructure of the European Climate Exchange," Departmental Working Papers 201005, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
- Yoichi Otsubo & Bruce Mizrach, 2012. "The Market Microstructure of the European Climate Exchange," LSF Research Working Paper Series 12-7, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg.
- Gary Koop & Roberto Leon-Gonzalez & Rodney W. Strachan, 2008.
"Dynamic probabilities of restrictions in state space models: An application to the Phillips curve,"
Working Paper Series
26_08, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
- Koop, Gary & Leon-Gonzalez, Roberto & Strachan, Rodney W., 2010. "Dynamic Probabilities of Restrictions in State Space Models: An Application to the Phillips Curve," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 28(3), pages 370-379.
- Del Negro, Marco & Primiceri, Giorgio E., 2013. "Time-varying structural vector autoregressions and monetary policy: a corrigendum," Staff Reports 619, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Oct 2014.
- Koop, Gary & Korobilis, Dimitris, 2009.
"Bayesian Multivariate Time Series Methods for Empirical Macroeconomics,"
20125, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Koop, Gary & Korobilis, Dimitris, 2010. "Bayesian Multivariate Time Series Methods for Empirical Macroeconomics," Foundations and Trends(R) in Econometrics, now publishers, vol. 3(4), pages 267-358, July.
- Gary Koop & Dimitris Korobilis, 2009. "Bayesian Multivariate Time Series Methods for Empirical Macroeconomics," Working Paper Series 47_09, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
- Gambetti, Luca & D’Agostino, Antonello & Giannone, Domenico, 2010.
"Macroeconomic forecasting and structural change,"
Working Paper Series
1167, European Central Bank.
- Antonello D'Agostino & Luca Gambetti & Domenico Giannone, 2009. "Macroeconomic Forecasting and Structural Change," Working Papers ECARES 2009_020, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- D'Agostino, Antonello & Gambetti, Luca & Giannone, Domenico, 2009. "Macroeconomic Forecasting and Structural Change," CEPR Discussion Papers 7542, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- D'Agostino, Antonello & Gambetti, Luca & Giannone, Domenico & Giannone, Domenico, 2009. "Macroeconomic Forecasting and Structural Change," Research Technical Papers 8/RT/09, Central Bank of Ireland.
- Giorgio E. Primiceri, 2005. "Time Varying Structural Vector Autoregressions and Monetary Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(3), pages 821-852.
- repec:ebl:ecbull:v:30:y:2010:i:1:p:558-576 is not listed on IDEAS
- Haroon Mumtaz & Paolo Surico, 2009.
"Time-varying yield curve dynamics and monetary policy,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(6), pages 895-913.
- Mumtaz, Haroon & Surico, Paolo, 2008. "Time-Varying Yield Curve Dynamics and Monetary Policy," Discussion Papers 23, Monetary Policy Committee Unit, Bank of England.
- Fatemeh Nazifi, 2010. "The price impacts of linking the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme to the Clean Development Mechanism," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 12(4), pages 164-186, December.
- Chevallier, Julien, 2010. "Modelling risk premia in CO2 allowances spot and futures prices," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 717-729, May.
- Beat Hintermann, 2009.
"Allowance Price Drivers in the First Phase of the EU ETS,"
CEPE Working paper series
09-63, CEPE Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich.
- Hintermann, Beat, 2010. "Allowance price drivers in the first phase of the EU ETS," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 43-56, January.
- Daskalakis, George & Psychoyios, Dimitris & Markellos, Raphael N., 2009. "Modeling CO2 emission allowance prices and derivatives: Evidence from the European trading scheme," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1230-1241, July.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/4221 is not listed on IDEAS
- Mizrach, Bruce, 2012. "Integration of the global carbon markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 335-349.
- Marc Gronwald & Janina Ketterer, 2012. "What Moves the European Carbon Market? - Insights from Conditional Jump Models," CESifo Working Paper Series 3795, CESifo Group Munich.
- Koop, Gary & Tole, Lise, 2011.
"Forecasting the European Carbon Market,"
SIRE Discussion Papers
2011-20, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/4227 is not listed on IDEAS
- Todd E. Clark & Troy A. Davig, 2008. "An empirical assessment of the relationships among inflation and short- and long-term expectations," Research Working Paper RWP 08-05, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
- Bolinger, Mark & Wiser, Ryan & Golove, William, 2006. "Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 706-720, April.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/11687 is not listed on IDEAS
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/4224 is not listed on IDEAS
- Sims, Christopher A., 1988.
"Bayesian skepticism on unit root econometrics,"
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control,
Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 463-474.
- Christopher A. Sims, 1988. "Bayesian skepticism on unit root econometrics," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 3, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Alberola, Emilie & Chevallier, Julien & Cheze, Benoi^t, 2008. "Price drivers and structural breaks in European carbon prices 2005-2007," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 787-797, February.
- Alberola, Emilie & Chevallier, Julien & Chèze, Benoît, 2009. "Emissions Compliances and Carbon Prices under the EU ETS: A Country Specific Analysis of Industrial Sectors," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 446-462, May.
- Cogley, Timothy W. & Morozov, Sergei & Sargent, Thomas J., 2003.
"Bayesian fan charts for UK inflation: Forecasting and sources of uncertainty in an evolving monetary system,"
CFS Working Paper Series
2003/44, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
- Cogley, Timothy & Morozov, Sergei & Sargent, Thomas J., 2005. "Bayesian fan charts for U.K. inflation: Forecasting and sources of uncertainty in an evolving monetary system," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 29(11), pages 1893-1925, November.
- Garbade, Kenneth D & Silber, William L, 1983. "Price Movements and Price Discovery in Futures and Cash Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(2), pages 289-297, May.
- Francis A. Longstaff & Ashley W. Wang, 2004. "Electricity Forward Prices: A High-Frequency Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(4), pages 1877-1900, 08.
- Julien Chevallier, 2010. "A Note on Cointegrating and Vector Autoregressive Relationships between CO2 allowances spot and futures prices," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(2), pages 1564-1584.
- Benz, Eva & Trück, Stefan, 2009. "Modeling the price dynamics of CO2 emission allowances," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 4-15, January.
- Christiane Baumeister & Eveline Durinck & Gert Peersman, "undated".
"Liquidity, Inflation and Asset Prices in a Time-Varying Framework for the Euro Area,"
08/06, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
- Christiane Baumeister & Eveline Durinck & Gert Peersman, 2008. "Liquidity, inflation and asset prices in a time-varying framework for the euro area," Working Paper Research 142, National Bank of Belgium.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/4222 is not listed on IDEAS
- Julien Chevallier, 2011. "Anticipating correlations between EUAs and CERs: a Dynamic Conditional Correlation GARCH model," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(1), pages 255-272.
- A. C. Christiansen & A. Arvanitakis & K. Tangen & H. Hasselknippe, 2005. "Price determinants in the EU emissions trading scheme," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 15-30, January.
- Hasbrouck, Joel, 1995. " One Security, Many Markets: Determining the Contributions to Price Discovery," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1175-1199, September.
- Koop, Gary & Leon-Gonzalez, Roberto & Strachan, Rodney W., 2009. "On the evolution of the monetary policy transmission mechanism," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 997-1017, April.
- Menzie D. Chinn & Olivier Coibion, 2014.
"The Predictive Content of Commodity Futures,"
Journal of Futures Markets,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(7), pages 607-636, 07.
- Menzie D. Chinn & Olivier Coibion, 2010. "The Predictive Content of Commodity Futures," NBER Working Papers 15830, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Menzie D. Chinn & Olivier Coibion, 2010. "The Predictive Content of Commodity Futures," Working Papers 89, Department of Economics, College of William and Mary.
- Stefan Trück & Wolfgang Härdle & Rafal Weron, 2012. "The relationship between spot and futures CO2 emission allowance prices in the EU-ETS," HSC Research Reports HSC/12/02, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology.
- Chevallier, Julien & Ielpo, Florian & Mercier, Ludovic, 2009. "Risk aversion and institutional information disclosure on the European carbon market: A case-study of the 2006 compliance event," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 15-28, January.
- Chevillon, Guillaume & Rifflart, Christine, 2007.
"Physical Market Determinants of the Price of Crude Oil and the Market Premium,"
ESSEC Working Papers
DR 07020, ESSEC Research Center, ESSEC Business School.
- Chevillon, Guillaume & Rifflart, Christine, 2009. "Physical market determinants of the price of crude oil and the market premium," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 537-549, July.
- Gonzalo, Jesús & Figuerola-Ferretti, Isabel, 2008.
"Modelling and Measuring Price Discovery in Commodity Markets,"
DEE - Working Papers. Business Economics. WB
15951, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
- Figuerola-Ferretti, Isabel & Gonzalo, Jesús, 2010. "Modelling and measuring price discovery in commodity markets," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 158(1), pages 95-107, September.
- Gonzalo, Jesús & Figuerola-Ferretti, Isabel, 2007. "Modelling and measuring price discovery in commodity markets," DEE - Working Papers. Business Economics. WB wb074510, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
- Julien Chevallier, 2010. "EUAs and CERs: Vector Autoregression, Impulse Response Function and Cointegration Analysis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(1), pages 558-576.
- Robert S. Pindyck, 2001. "The Dynamics of Commodity Spot and Futures Markets: A Primer," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 1-30.
- Bekiros, Stelios D. & Diks, Cees G.H., 2008.
"The relationship between crude oil spot and futures prices: Cointegration, linear and nonlinear causality,"
Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2673-2685, September.
- Bekiros, S. & Diks, C.G.H., 2007. "The Relationship between Crude Oil Spot and Futures Prices: Cointegration, Linear and Nonlinear Causality," CeNDEF Working Papers 07-11, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
- Bredin, Don & Muckley, Cal, 2011. "An emerging equilibrium in the EU emissions trading scheme," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 353-362, March.
- Emilie Alberola & Benoît Chèze & Julien Chevallier, 2008. "The EU Emissions Trading Scheme : Disentangling the Effects of Industrial Production and CO2 Emissions on Carbon Prices," EconomiX Working Papers 2008-12, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
- Maria Mansanet-Bataller & Julien Chevallier & Morgan Hervé-Mignucci & Emilie Alberola, 2010. "The EUA-sCER Spread: Compliance Strategies and Arbitrage in the European Carbon Market," Post-Print halshs-00458991, HAL.
- Nicholas Linacre & Alexandre Kossoy & Philippe Ambrosi, "undated". "State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2011," World Bank Other Operational Studies 13400, The World Bank.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:24:y:2013:i:c:p:166-181. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.