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Modeling EU allowances and oil market interdependence. Implications for portfolio management


  • Reboredo, Juan C.


This paper examines the dependence structure between European Union allowances (EUAs) and crude oil markets during the second commitment period of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and the implications for portfolio management. Using different copula models, our findings suggest positive average dependence and extreme symmetric independence that is consistent with interdependence and no contagion effects between the EUA and crude oil markets. The implication of this result for EUA-oil portfolios points to the existence of diversification benefits, hedging effectiveness, and value-at-risk reductions. The EUA market is therefore an attractive market for investors in terms of diversifying market risk and reducing downside risk in crude oil markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Reboredo, Juan C., 2013. "Modeling EU allowances and oil market interdependence. Implications for portfolio management," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 471-480.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:36:y:2013:i:c:p:471-480 DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2012.10.004

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    2. Guo, Yanfeng & Wen, Xiaoqian & Wu, Yanrui & Guo, Xiumei, 2016. "How is China's coke price related with the world oil price? The role of extreme movements," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 22-33.
    3. Reboredo, Juan C. & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu, 2015. "An analysis of dependence between Central and Eastern European stock markets," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 474-490.
    4. Reboredo, Juan C., 2013. "Is gold a safe haven or a hedge for the US dollar? Implications for risk management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2665-2676.
    5. Wen, Xiaoqian & Bouri, Elie & Roubaud, David, 2017. "Can energy commodity futures add to the value of carbon assets?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 194-206.
    6. Yu, Lean & Li, Jingjing & Tang, Ling & Wang, Shuai, 2015. "Linear and nonlinear Granger causality investigation between carbon market and crude oil market: A multi-scale approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 300-311.
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    8. Reboredo, Juan C., 2014. "Volatility spillovers between the oil market and the European Union carbon emission market," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 229-234.
    9. Reboredo, Juan C. & Ugando, Mikel, 2015. "Downside risks in EU carbon and fossil fuel markets," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 17-35.
    10. Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Reboredo, Juan Carlos & Wen, Xiaoqian, 2014. "Dependence of stock and commodity futures markets in China: Implications for portfolio investment," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 183-200.
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    13. Jammazi, Rania & Reboredo, Juan C., 2016. "Dependence and risk management in oil and stock markets. A wavelet-copula analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 866-888.
    14. Yinpeng Zhang & Zhixin Liu & Xueying Yu, 2017. "The Diversification Benefits of Including Carbon Assets in Financial Portfolios," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(3), pages 1-13, March.
    15. Reboredo, Juan C. & Rivera-Castro, Miguel A. & Ugolini, Andrea, 2017. "Wavelet-based test of co-movement and causality between oil and renewable energy stock prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 241-252.
    16. Tan, Xue-Ping & Wang, Xin-Yu, 2017. "Dependence changes between the carbon price and its fundamentals: A quantile regression approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 190(C), pages 306-325.

    More about this item


    CO2 emission allowances; Oil prices; Copulas; Portfolio management;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C58 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Financial Econometrics
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • Q52 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Pollution Control Adoption and Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects


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