Offshoring, Multinationals And Labour Market: A Review Of The Empirical Literature
This paper reviews the empirical literature on the effects of offshoring and foreign activities of multinational enterprises on developed countries' labour markets. Results suggest that material offshoring worsens wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers; it also seems to make employment more volatile, by raising the elasticity of labour demand and the risk of job losses. Service offshoring exerts at most small negative effects on total employment, and changes the composition of the workforce in favour of high-skilled white-collar employees. Multinationals tend to substitute domestic and foreign labour in response to changes in relative wages across countries; substitutability is weak, however, and mainly driven by horizontal, market-seeking foreign direct investments. Copyright � 2008 The Author. Journal compilation � 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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Volume (Year): 23 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 (04)
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