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Offshoring, Multinationals And Labour Market: A Review Of The Empirical Literature

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  • Rosario Crinò

Abstract

This paper reviews the empirical literature on the effects of offshoring and foreign activities of multinational enterprises on developed countries' labour markets. Results suggest that material offshoring worsens wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers; it also seems to make employment more volatile, by raising the elasticity of labour demand and the risk of job losses. Service offshoring exerts at most small negative effects on total employment, and changes the composition of the workforce in favour of high‐skilled white‐collar employees. Multinationals tend to substitute domestic and foreign labour in response to changes in relative wages across countries; substitutability is weak, however, and mainly driven by horizontal, market‐seeking foreign direct investments.

Suggested Citation

  • Rosario Crinò, 2009. "Offshoring, Multinationals And Labour Market: A Review Of The Empirical Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(2), pages 197-249, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:23:y:2009:i:2:p:197-249
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6419.2008.00561.x
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    Cited by:

    1. Nathalie Chusseau & Joël Hellier, 2012. "Globalisation and Inequality: Where do we stand?," Journal of Income Distribution, Ad libros publications inc., vol. 21(3-4), pages 7-34, November.
    2. Katharina Längle, 2020. "Offshoring: What Consequences for Workers? Evidence from Global Value Chains," Post-Print halshs-02899944, HAL.
    3. Ronald B. Davies & Rodolphe Desbordes, 2012. "Greenfield FDI and skill upgrading," Working Papers 201209, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    4. Hess, Sebastian, 2011. "Outsourcing Decisions Of Pig Producers In Baden-Württemberg," 51st Annual Conference, Halle, Germany, September 28-30, 2011 114509, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA).
    5. Rosario Crinò, 2012. "Service Offshoring and the Skill Composition of Labour Demand," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 74(1), pages 20-57, February.
    6. Cilekoglu, Akin A. & Moreno, Rosina & Ramos, Raul, 2021. "The Impact of Robot Adoption on Global Sourcing," IZA Discussion Papers 14255, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Antonia Lòpez-Villavicencio & Luis Antonio Reyes Ortiz, 2018. "Is globalisation taking away jobs? An empirical assessment for advanced economies," Working Papers halshs-01895223, HAL.
    8. Elisa Borghi & Rosario Crinò, 2013. "Service offshoring and wages: worker-level evidence from Italy," LIUC Papers in Economics 264, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
    9. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Matsuura, Toshiyuki & Motohashi, Kazuyuki & Obashi, Ayako, 2013. "Two-dimensional analysis of the impact of outward FDI on performance at home: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing firms," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 25-33.
    10. Katharina Längle, 2020. "Offshoring: What Consequences for Workers? Evidence from Global Value Chains," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-02899944, HAL.
    11. David M. Arseneau & Brendan Epstein, 2014. "Offshoring, Mismatch, and Labor Market Outcomes," International Finance Discussion Papers 1118, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    12. Carmine Ornaghi & Ilke Van Beveren & Stijn Vanormelingen, 2021. "The impact of service and goods offshoring on employment: Firm‐level evidence," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 54(2), pages 677-711, May.
    13. Katharina Längle, 2020. "Offshoring: What Consequences for Workers? Evidence from Global Value Chains," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-02548691, HAL.
    14. Joachim Wagner, 2011. "Offshoring and firm performance: self-selection, effects on performance, or both?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 147(2), pages 217-247, June.
    15. Nolan, Brian & Richiardi, Matteo & Valenzuela, Luis, 2018. "The Drivers of Inequality in Rich Countries," MPRA Paper 89806, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Katharina Längle, 2020. "Offshoring: What Consequences for Workers? Evidence from Global Value Chains," Working Papers hal-02548691, HAL.
    17. Silvia Rocha‐Akis & Ronnie Schöb, 2011. "Welfare Policy in the Presence of Unionised Labour and Internationally Mobile Firms," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 113(1), pages 93-119, March.
    18. Crinò, Rosario, 2010. "Employment effects of service offshoring: Evidence from matched firms," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 253-256, May.
    19. Liu, Runjuan & Trefler, Daniel, 2019. "A sorted tale of globalization: White collar jobs and the rise of service offshoring," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 105-122.
    20. Anna M. Falzoni & Alessandra Venturini & Claudia Villosio, 2007. "Skilled and Unskilled Wage Dynamics in Italy in the ‘90s: Changes in the individual characteristics, institutions, trade and technology," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 61, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    21. Katharina Längle, 2020. "Offshoring: What Consequences for Workers? Evidence from Global Value Chains," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 20005, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    22. Hess, Sebastian, 2011. "Outsourcing, Regional Trade and Specialization: An Application to in the German Pig Sector," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114537, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    23. Martín Tobal, 2013. "An Offshoring Setup," Documentos de Investigación - Research Papers 11, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA.
    24. Crinò, Rosario, 2012. "Imported inputs and skill upgrading," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 957-969.
    25. Nathalie Chusseau & Michel Dumont, 2012. "Growing Income Inequalities in Advanced," Working Papers hal-00993359, HAL.

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    JEL classification:

    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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