IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/12991.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Offshoring: General Equilibrium Effects on Wages, Production and Trade

Author

Listed:
  • Richard Baldwin
  • Frederic Robert-Nicoud

Abstract

A simple model of offshoring, which depicts offshoring as 'shadow migration,' permits straightforward derivation of necessary and sufficient conditions for the effects on wages, prices, production and trade. We show that offshoring requires modification of the four classic international trade theorems, so econometricians who ignore offshoring might reject the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem when a properly specified version held in the data. We also show that offshoring is an independent source of comparative advantage and can lead to intra-industry trade in a Walrasian setting. The model is extended to allow for two-way offshoring between similar nations, and to allow for monopolistic competition.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard Baldwin & Frederic Robert-Nicoud, 2007. "Offshoring: General Equilibrium Effects on Wages, Production and Trade," NBER Working Papers 12991, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12991
    Note: ITI
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w12991.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Puga, Diego & Venables, Anthony J., 1996. "The Spread of Industry: Spatial Agglomeration in Economic Development," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 440-464, December.
    2. Wilhelm Kohler, 2004. "International outsourcing and factor prices with multistage production," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(494), pages 166-185, March.
    3. Ng, Francis & Yeats, Alexander, 2003. "Major trade trends in East Asia : what are their implications for regional cooperation and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3084, The World Bank.
    4. Feenstra, Robert C & Hanson, Gordon H, 1996. "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 240-245, May.
    5. James Markusen, 2005. "Modeling the Offshoring of White-Collar Services: From Comparative Advantage to the New Theories of Trade and FDI," NBER Working Papers 11827, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Ronald W. Jones & Ronald Findlay, 2001. "Input Trade and the Location of Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 29-33, May.
    7. Alan V. Deardorff, 2011. "Fragmentation in simple trade models," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Robert M Stern (ed.), Comparative Advantage, Growth, And The Gains From Trade And Globalization A Festschrift in Honor of Alan V Deardorff, chapter 16, pages 165-181, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    8. Ronald Findlay & Ronald W. Jones, 2018. "Factor Bias and Technical Progress," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: International Trade Theory and Competitive Models Features, Values, and Criticisms, chapter 11, pages 167-173, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    9. Mitsuyo Ando & Fukunari Kimura, 2005. "The Formation of International Production and Distribution Networks in East Asia," NBER Chapters, in: International Trade in East Asia, pages 177-216, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2005. "Fear of service outsourcing: is it justified? [‘Location of vertically linked industries: agglomeration versus comparative advantage’]," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 20(42), pages 308-347.
    11. Trefler, Daniel, 1993. "International Factor Price Differences: Leontief Was Right!," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(6), pages 961-987, December.
    12. Batra, Raveendra N & Casas, Francisco R, 1973. "Intermediate Products and the Pure Theory of International Trade: A Neo-Heckscher-Ohlin Framework," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(3), pages 297-311, June.
    13. Ronald W. Jones, 2000. "A Framework for Fragmentation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-056/2, Tinbergen Institute.
    14. Davis, Donald R., 1995. "Intra-industry trade: A Heckscher-Ohlin-Ricardo approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3-4), pages 201-226, November.
    15. Joseph F. Francois, 1990. "Trade in Producer Services and Returns Due to Specialization under Monopolistic Competition," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 23(1), pages 109-124, February.
    16. Ronald W. Jones & Henryk Kierzkowski & Gregory Leonard, 2002. "Fragmentation and Intra-Industry Trade," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: P. J. Lloyd & Hyun-Hoon Lee (ed.), Frontiers of Research in Intra-Industry Trade, chapter 5, pages 67-86, Palgrave Macmillan.
    17. Francois, Joseph F, 1990. "Producer Services, Scale, and the Division of Labor," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(4), pages 715-729, October.
    18. Avinash K. Dixit & Gene M. Grossman, 1982. "Trade and Protection with Multistage Production," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(4), pages 583-594.
    19. Jones, R.W. & Marjit, S., 1992. "International Trade and Endogenous Production Structures," RCER Working Papers 312, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
    20. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
    21. Wilhelm Kohler, 2004. "Aspects of International Fragmentation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 793-816, November.
    22. Takatoshi Ito & Andrew K. Rose, 2005. "International Trade in East Asia," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ito_05-1, January.
    23. Ito, Takatoshi & Rose, Andrew K. (ed.), 2005. "International Trade in East Asia," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226378961, February.
    24. Raveendra N. Batra, 1973. "Pure Intermediate Products," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Studies in the Pure Theory of International Trade, chapter 8, pages 180-201, Palgrave Macmillan.
    25. Woodland, A D, 1977. "Joint Outputs, Intermediate Inputs and International Trade Theory," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 18(3), pages 517-533, October.
    26. Ethier, Wilfred J, 1982. "National and International Returns to Scale in the Modern Theory of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 389-405, June.
    27. repec:rus:hseeco:123689 is not listed on IDEAS
    28. Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Fragmentation and multinational production," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 935-945, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Baldwin, Richard & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2014. "Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 51-62.
    2. Richard Baldwin & Javier Lopez-Gonzalez, 2015. "Supply-chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1682-1721, November.
    3. Richard Baldwin, 2014. "WTO 2.0: Governance of 21st century trade," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 261-283, June.
    4. João Amador & Sónia Cabral, 2014. "Global Value Chains: Surveying Drivers, Measures and Impacts," Working Papers w201403, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    5. Baldwin, Richard, 2009. "Integration of the North American economy and new-paradigm globalisation," CEPR Discussion Papers 7523, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Joël Hellier, 2013. "The North-South HOS Model, Inequality and Globalization," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Joël Hellier & Nathalie Chusseau (ed.), Growing Income Inequalities, chapter 4, pages 107-146, Palgrave Macmillan.
    7. Baldwin, Richard & Okubo, Toshihiro, 2019. "GVC journeys: Industrialisation and deindustrialisation in the age of the second unbundling," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 53-67.
    8. Saygılı, Hülya, 2017. "Production fragmentation and factor price convergence," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 535-544.
    9. Nobuaki Yamashita, 2010. "International Fragmentation of Production," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13615.
    10. Nowak, Jean-Jacques & Petit, Sylvain & Sahli, Mondher, 2010. "Tourism and Globalization: The International Division of Tourism Production," MPRA Paper 75083, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Philipp Harms & Jaewon Jung & Oliver Lorz, 2021. "Offshoring and sequential production chains: A general equilibrium analysis," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 54(2), pages 623-647, May.
    12. Richard Baldwin & Rebecca Freeman, 2021. "Risks and global supply chains: What we know and what we need to know," NBER Working Papers 29444, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Markusen, James R. & Strand, Bridget, 2007. "Trade in Business Services in General Equilibrium," CEPR Discussion Papers 6080, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Ando, Mitsuyo, 2006. "Fragmentation and vertical intra-industry trade in East Asia," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 257-281, December.
    15. Baldwin, Richard & Venables, Anthony J., 2013. "Spiders and snakes: Offshoring and agglomeration in the global economy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 245-254.
    16. Miraskari , Seyed Reza & Tayebi , Seyed Komail & Vaez Barzani , Mohammad, 2013. "An Analysis of International Outsourcing in Iran-China Trade Relations," Journal of Money and Economy, Monetary and Banking Research Institute, Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, vol. 8(1), pages 109-139, January.
    17. Amador, João & Cabral, Sónia, 2009. "Vertical specialization across the world: A relative measure," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 267-280, December.
    18. Toru Kikuchi & Sugata Marjit & Biswajit Mandal, 2013. "Trade with Time Zone Differences: Factor Market Implications," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 699-711, November.
    19. Mary Amiti & Shang‐Jin Wei, 2009. "Service Offshoring and Productivity: Evidence from the US," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(2), pages 203-220, February.
    20. Michael C. Burda & Barbara Dluhosch, 2002. "Fragmentation, Globalisation and Labour Markets," International Economic Association Series, in: David Greenaway & Richard Upward & Katharine Wakelin (ed.), Trade, Investment, Migration and Labour Market Adjustment, chapter 4, pages 47-65, Palgrave Macmillan.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade
    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12991. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.