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Foreign Direct Investment and Employment: Home Country Experience in the United States and Sweden

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  • Magnus Blomstrom
  • Gunnar Fors
  • Robert E. Lipsey

Abstract

We compare the relation between foreign affiliate production and parent employment in U.S. manufacturing multinationals with that in Swedish firms. U.S. multinationals appear to have allocated some of their more labor intensive operations selling in world markets to affiliates in developing countries, reducing the labor intensity in their home production. Swedish multinationals produce relatively little in developing countries and most of that has been for sale within host countries with import-substituting trade regimes. The great majority of Swedish affiliate production is in high-income countries, the U.S. and Europe, and is associated with more employment, particularly blue-collar employment, in the parent companies. The small Swedish-owned production that does take place in developing countries is also associated with more white-collar employment at home. The effects on white-collar employment within the Swedish firms have grown smaller and weaker over time.

Suggested Citation

  • Magnus Blomstrom & Gunnar Fors & Robert E. Lipsey, 1997. "Foreign Direct Investment and Employment: Home Country Experience in the United States and Sweden," NBER Working Papers 6205, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:6205
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Blomström, Magnus & Kokko, Ari, 1994. "Home Country Effects of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from Sweden," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 3, Stockholm School of Economics.
    2. Stevens, Guy V. G. & Lipsey, Robert E., 1992. "Interactions between domestic and foreign investment," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 40-62, February.
    3. Roger Svensson, 1996. "Effects of overseas production on home country exports: Evidence based on Swedish multinationals," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 132(2), pages 304-329, September.
    4. Lipsey, Robert E & Weiss, Merle Yahr, 1981. "Foreign Production and Exports in Manufacturing Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(4), pages 488-494, November.
    5. Irving B. Kravis & Robert E. Lipsey, 1988. "The Effect of Multinational Firms' Operations on Their Domestic Employment," NBER Working Papers 2760, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Robert E. Baldwin, 1988. "Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bald88-2.
    7. repec:mes:challe:v:31:y:1988:i:4:p:56-58 is not listed on IDEAS
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand

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