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The Evolving External Orientation of Manufacturing Industries: Evidence from Four Countries

  • Jose Campa
  • Linda S. Goldberg

Significant changes in the external orientation of manufacturing industries are observed in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, but not in Japan. The observed increases in external orientation are in terms of industry export shares, import penetration, and imported input use in production. United States industries have experienced a particularly dramatic increase in imported input use, accompanied by highly variable patterns of industry net external orientation over the past two decades. Although similar manufacturing industries have strong export orientation in all countries, across countries these same industries have profoundly different patterns of import penetration, imported input use, and net external exposure to exchange rate and trade policy changes

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5919.

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Date of creation: Feb 1997
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Economic Policy Review, Vol. 3, no. 2 (July 1997): 53-81.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5919
Contact details of provider: Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
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  1. Jose Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1995. "Investment, Pass-Through and Exchange Rates: A Cross-Country Comparison," NBER Working Papers 5139, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Richard C. Marston, 1996. "The Effects of Industry Structure on Economic Exposure," NBER Working Papers 5518, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Rudiger Dornbusch, 1985. "Exchange Rates and Prices," NBER Working Papers 1769, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1993. "On Exchange Rates," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061546, June.
  5. Bodnar, Gordon M. & Gentry, William M., 1993. "Exchange rate exposure and industry characteristics: evidence from Canada, Japan, and the USA," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 29-45, February.
  6. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1996. "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality," NBER Working Papers 5424, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Goldberg, Linda S, 1993. "Exchange Rates and Investment in United States Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 575-88, November.
  8. Harrigan, James, 1996. "Openness to trade in manufactures in the OECD," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1-2), pages 23-39, February.
  9. Marston, R.C., 1996. "The Effects of Industry Structure on Economic Exposure," Weiss Center Working Papers 96-3, Wharton School - Weiss Center for International Financial Research.
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