IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

International Fragmentation of Production in the Portuguese Economy: What do Different Measures Tell Us?

  • João Amador
  • Sónia Cabral

This paper analyses the relevance and the characteristics of the international fragmentation of production in the Portuguese economy. The empirical trade literature suggests different measures of fragmentation, changing the scope of the concept and using alternative sets of information. The existing measures can be broadly divided in those that make use of Input-Output matrices together with international trade data and those that look at specific elements of international transactions, namely trade in parts and components and outward-inward processing trade. In this paper, we survey the different measures of international fragmentation of production and apply them to Portuguese data. Our results of Input-Output based measures point to a substantial increase of the vertical linkages in the Portuguese economy, in particular since the nineties. Nevertheless, it seems that the pace of vertical specialization has been somewhat modest in international terms. The share of exports of parts and components in total trade has almost doubled in the last two decades, while the import share of these goods has remained nearly stable. Processing trade represents a very low share of Portuguese international trade.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department in its series Working Papers with number w200811.

in new window

Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ptu:wpaper:w200811
Contact details of provider: Postal: R. do Ouro, 27, 1100 LISBOA
Phone: 21 321 32 00
Fax: 21 346 48 43
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Jose Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1997. "The evolving external orientation of manufacturing: a profile of four countries," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 53-81.
  2. Sanyal, Kalyan K & Jones, Ronald W, 1982. "The Theory of Trade in Middle Products," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 16-31, March.
  3. Prema-chandra Athukorala & Nobuaki Yamashita, 2005. "Production Fragmentation and Trade Integration: East Asia in a Global Context," Departmental Working Papers 2005-07, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
  4. Ando, Mitsuyo, 2006. "Fragmentation and vertical intra-industry trade in East Asia," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 257-281, December.
  5. Kimura, Fukunari & Ando, Mitsuyo, 2005. "Two-dimensional fragmentation in East Asia: Conceptual framework and empirics," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 317-348.
  6. Deborah Swenson & Robert Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 2003. "Offshore Assembly From The United States: Production Characteristics Of The 9802 Program," Working Papers 9810, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  7. David L. Hummels & Dana Rapoport & Kei-Mu Yi, 1998. "Vertical specialization and the changing nature of world trade," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jun, pages 79-99.
  8. Kei-Mu Yi, 2000. "Can vertical specialization explain the growth of world trade?," Staff Reports 96, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  9. Christopher Johann Kurz, 2006. "Outstanding Outsourcers: A Firm- and Plant-Level Analysis of Production Sharing," Working Papers 06-02, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  10. Baldwin, Richard & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2007. "Offshoring: General Equilibrium Effects on Wages, Production and Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 6218, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2005. "The Determinants of EU Processing Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(2), pages 147-168, 02.
  12. Amador, João & Cabral, Sónia, 2008. "Vertical specialization across the world: a relative measure," MPRA Paper 9618, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Robert Koopman & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2008. "How Much of Chinese Exports is Really Made In China? Assessing Domestic Value-Added When Processing Trade is Pervasive," NBER Working Papers 14109, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Feenstra, Robert C & Hanson, Gordon H, 1996. "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 240-45, May.
  15. Pol Antràs & Luis Garicano & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2005. "Offshoring in a Knowledge Economy," Discussion Papers 04-020, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  16. Deardorff, A.V., 1998. "Fragmentation Across Cones," Working Papers 427, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  17. Horgos, Daniel, 2007. "Labor Market Effects of International Outsourcing: How Measurement Matters," Working Paper 62/2007, Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg.
  18. Christopher J. Kurz, 2006. "Outstanding outsourcers: a firm- and plant-level analysis of production sharing," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2006-04, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  19. Ursel Baumann & Filippo di Mauro, 2007. "Globalisation and euro area trade: Interactions and challenges," Occasional Paper Series 55, European Central Bank.
  20. Jones, Ronald & Kierzkowski, Henryk & Lurong, Chen, 2005. "What does evidence tell us about fragmentation and outsourcing?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 305-316.
  21. Lemoine, Francoise & Unal-Kesenci, Deniz, 2004. "Assembly Trade and Technology Transfer: The Case of China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 829-850, May.
  22. Deardorff, A.V., 1998. "Fragmentation in Simple Trade Models," Papers 98-11, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
  23. Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2005. "Fear of service outsourcing: is it justified?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 20(42), pages 308-347, 04.
  24. Vanessa Strauss-Kahn, 2003. "The Role of Globalization in the Within-Industry Shift Away from Unskilled Workers in France," NBER Working Papers 9716, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Ingo Geishecker & Ingo Geishecker & Jakob Roland Munch, 2007. "Do Labour Market Institutions Matter? Micro-level Wage Effects of International Outsourcing in Three European Countries," EPRU Working Paper Series 07-03, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  26. Sanjaya Lall, Manuel Albaladejo and Jinkang Zhang (QEH), . "Mapping Fragmentation: Electronics and Automobiles in East Asia and Latin America," QEH Working Papers qehwps115, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
  27. Fukunari KIMURA, 2006. "International Production and Distribution Networks in East Asia: Eighteen Facts, Mechanics, and Policy Implications," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 1(2), pages 326-344.
  28. GAULIER, Guillaume & LEMOINE, Francoise & UNAL-KESENCI, Deniz, 2007. "China's emergence and the reorganisation of trade flows in Asia," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 209-243.
  29. Guillaume Gaulier & Françoise Lemoine & Deniz Ünal-Kesenci, 2005. "China’s Integration in East Asia: Production Sharing, FDI & High-Tech Trade," Working Papers 2005-09, CEPII research center.
  30. Runjuan Liu & Daniel Trefler, 2008. "Much Ado About Nothing: American Jobs and the Rise of Service Outsourcing to China and India," NBER Working Papers 14061, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Arndt, Sven W. & Kierzkowski, Henryk (ed.), 2001. "Fragmentation: New Production Patterns in the World Economy," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199243310, July.
  32. Arndt, Sven W., 1997. "Globalization and the open economy," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 71-79.
  33. Tomiura, Eiichi, 2005. "Foreign outsourcing and firm-level characteristics: Evidence from Japanese manufacturers," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 255-271, June.
  34. Gordon H. Hanson & Raymond J. Mataloni & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2005. "Vertical Production Networks in Multinational Firms," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(4), pages 664-678, November.
  35. Holger Görg, 2000. "Fragmentation and trade: US inward processing trade in the EU," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 136(3), pages 403-422, 09.
  36. Egger, Peter & Pfaffermayr, Michael & Wolfmayr-Schnitzer, Yvonne, 2001. "The international fragmentation of Austrian manufacturing: The effects of outsourcing on productivity and wages," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 257-272, November.
  37. Jones, Ronald W. & Kierzkowski, Henryk, 2005. "International fragmentation and the new economic geography," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 1-10, March.
  38. Kimura, Fukunari & Takahashi, Yuya & Hayakawa, Kazunobu, 2007. "Fragmentation and parts and components trade: Comparison between East Asia and Europe," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 23-40, February.
  39. Ingo Geishecker & Holger Görg, 2008. "Winners and losers: a micro-level analysis of international outsourcing and wages," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 41(1), pages 243-270, February.
  40. Salvatore Baldone & Fabio Sdogati & Lucia Tajoli, 2006. "On some effects of international fragmentation of production on comparative advantages, trade flows, and the income of countries," KITeS Working Papers 187, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Nov 2006.
  41. Emanuele Breda & Rita Cappariello & Roberta Zizza, 2007. "Vertical Specialisation in Europe: Evidence from the Import Content of Exports," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 97(3), pages 189, May-June.
  42. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2003. "Outsourcing and skill-specific employment in a small economy: Austria after the fall of the Iron Curtain," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 55(4), pages 625-643, October.
  43. João Amador & Sónia Cabral, 2008. "Vertical Specialization in Portuguese International Trade," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  44. Alexander Hijzen, 2005. "A Bird’s Eye View of International Outsourcing: Data, Measurement and Labour Demand Effects," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 104, pages 45-63.
  45. Hung-Yi Chen & Yang-Ming Chang, 2006. "Trade Verticality and Structural Change in Industries:The Cases of Taiwan and South Korea," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 321-340, July.
  46. Wilhelm Kohler, 2004. "Aspects of International Fragmentation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 793-816, November.
  47. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. "Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring," NBER Working Papers 12721, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  48. Robert C. Feenstra, 2007. "Globalization and Its Impact on Labour," wiiw Working Papers 44, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  49. Deardorff, Alan V., 2005. "A trade theorist's take on skilled-labor outsourcing," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 259-271.
  50. José R. Maria & João Amador & Sónia Cabral, 2007. "Relative Export Structures and Vertical Specialization: A Simple Cross-Country Index," Working Papers w200701, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  51. Salvatore Baldone & Fabio Sdogati & Lucia Tajoli, 2001. "Patterns and determinants of international fragmentation of production: Evidence from outward processing trade between the EU and Central Eastern European countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 80-104, March.
  52. Ng, Francis & Yeats, Alexander, 1999. "Production sharing in East Asia : who does what for whom, and why?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2197, The World Bank.
  53. Don Clark, 2006. "Country and industry-level determinants of vertical specialization-based trade," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 211-225.
  54. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
  55. Kaminski, Bartlomiej & Ng, Francis, 2001. "Trade and production fragmentation : Central European economies in European Union networks of production and marketing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2611, The World Bank.
  56. Margit Molnár & Nigel Pain & Daria Taglioni, 2007. "The Internationalisation of Production, International Outsourcing and Employment in the OECD," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 561, OECD Publishing.
  57. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2000. "Outsourcing and skill-specific employment in a small economy: Austria and the fall of the Iron Curtain," Economics working papers 2000-24, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  58. Maria Borga & William J. Zeile, 2004. "International Fragmentation of Production and the Intrafirm Trade of U.s. Multinational Companies," BEA Papers 0035, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
  59. repec:clu:wpaper:1996_21 is not listed on IDEAS
  60. Rodolfo Helg, 2005. "Patterns of international fragmentation of production and the relative demand for labor," LIUC Papers in Economics 167, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
  61. Deborah L. Swenson, 2004. "Overseas Assembly and Country Sourcing Choices," NBER Working Papers 10697, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  62. Egger, Hartmut & Egger, Peter, 2001. "Cross-border sourcing and outward processing in EU manufacturing," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 243-256, November.
  63. repec:hrv:faseco:4784031 is not listed on IDEAS
  64. Holger Görg & Aoife Hanley & Eric Strobl, 2008. "Productivity effects of international outsourcing: evidence from plant-level data," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 41(2), pages 670-688, May.
  65. Gorg, Holger & Hanley, Aoife, 2005. "International outsourcing and productivity: evidence from the Irish electronics industry," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 255-269, August.
  66. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. "The rise of offshoring: it's not wine for cloth anymore," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 59-102.
  67. Alexander Hijzen, 2007. "International Outsourcing, Technological Change, and Wage Inequality," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 188-205, 02.
  68. Judith M. Dean & K. C. Fung & Zhi Wang, 2011. "Measuring Vertical Specialization: The Case of China," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 609-625, 09.
  69. Françoise Lemoine & Deniz Ünal-Kesenci, 2002. "China in the International Segmentation of Production Processes," Working Papers 2002-02, CEPII research center.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ptu:wpaper:w200811. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (DEE-NTDD)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.