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Outward FDI and Parent Exports and Employment: Japan, the United States, and Sweden

Author

Listed:
  • Robert E. Lipsey
  • Eric D. Ramstetter
  • Magnus Blomstrom

Abstract

Within Japanese multinational firms, parent exports from Japan to a foreign region are positively related to production in that region by affiliates of that parent, given the parent's home production in Japan and the region's size and income level. This relationship is similar to that found for Swedish and U.S. multinationals in parallel studies. A Japanese parent's worldwide exports tend to be larger, relative to its output, the larger the firm's overseas production. In this respect also, Japanese firms resembled U.S. multinationals. A Japanese parent's employment, given the level of its production, tends to be higher, the greater the production abroad by the firm's foreign affiliates. Japanese firms' behavior in this respect is similar to that of Swedish firms, but contrasts with that of U.S. firms. U.S. firms appear to reduce employment at home, relative to production, by allocating labor-intensive parts of their production to affiliates in developing countries. Swedish firms seem to allocate the more capital-intensive parts of their production to their foreign affiliates, mostly in high-wage countries. We conclude that in Japanese firms and ancillary employment at home to service foreign operations outweighs any allocation of labor-intensive production to developing countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert E. Lipsey & Eric D. Ramstetter & Magnus Blomstrom, 2000. "Outward FDI and Parent Exports and Employment: Japan, the United States, and Sweden," NBER Working Papers 7623, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7623
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Blomstrom, Magnus & Fors, Gunnar & Lipsey, Robert E, 1997. "Foreign Direct Investment and Employment: Home Country Experience in the United States and Sweden," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(445), pages 1787-1797, November.
    2. Fors, Gunnar & Svensson, Roger, 1994. "R&D in Swedish Multinational Corporations," Working Paper Series 406, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    3. Robert E. Lipsey, 1999. "Foreign Production by U.S. Firms and Parent Firm Employment," NBER Working Papers 7357, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Magnus Blomstrom & Robert E. Lipsey & Ksenia Kulchycky, 1988. "U.S. and Swedish Direct Investment and Exports," NBER Chapters,in: Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, pages 257-302 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. repec:hhs:iuiwop:490 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Robert E. Lipsey & Merle Yahr Weiss, 1976. "Exports and Foreign Investment in Manufacturing Industries," NBER Working Papers 0131, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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