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Imports, Exports, and Jobs: What Does Trade Mean for Employment and Job Loss?


  • Lori G. Kletzer

    (University of California, Santa Cruz)


Kletzer adds to our understanding of the magnitude of the costs and benefits of free trade. She presents a focused examination of the relationship between changes in international trade, employment, and job displacement for a sample of U.S. manufacturing industries. The link between international trade and domestic jobs is also explored through studies of both net and gross employment job change.

Suggested Citation

  • Lori G. Kletzer, 2002. "Imports, Exports, and Jobs: What Does Trade Mean for Employment and Job Loss?," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number iej, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:upj:ubooks:iej Note: PDF is the book's first chapter.

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Woodbury, Stephen A & Spiegelman, Robert G, 1987. "Bonuses to Workers and Employers to Reduce Unemployment: Randomized Trials in Illinois," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 513-530, September.
    2. Randall W. Eberts, 1997. "The Use of Profiling to Target Services in State Welfare-to-Work Programs: An Example of Process and Implementation," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 98-52, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    3. Bruce D. Meyer, 1995. "Lessons from the U.S. Unemployment Insurance Experiments," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 91-131, March.
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    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Sébastien Breau & David L. Rigby, 2010. "International trade and wage inequality in Canada," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(1), pages 55-86, January.
    2. Janet Koech & Mark A. Wynne, 2017. "Diversification and Specialization of U.S. States," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 47(1), pages 63-91, Winter.
    3. Elia, Stefano & Maggi, Elena & Mariotti, Ilaria, 2011. "Does the transport industry gain from manufacturing internationalization? An empirical investigation on the Italian regions," European Transport \ Trasporti Europei, ISTIEE, Institute for the Study of Transport within the European Economic Integration, issue 49, pages 53-74.
    4. Rosario Crinò, 2007. "Offshoring, Multinationals and Labor Market: A Review of the Empirical Literature," KITeS Working Papers 196, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jan 2007.
    5. Sarra Ben Yahmed & Sean Dougherty, 2012. "Import Competition, Domestic Regulation and Firm-Level Productivity Growth in the OECD," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 980, OECD Publishing.
    6. Erhan Artuç & Shubham Chaudhuri & John McLaren, 2010. "Trade Shocks and Labor Adjustment: A Structural Empirical Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(3), pages 1008-1045, June.
    7. Jillian Berk & Peter Z. Schochet, 2012. "Impact Estimates Regarding Nonparticipants in the Trade Adjustment Assistance TAA Program Under the 2002 Amendments," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 28fe01344e5f4fe688bfc3df3, Mathematica Policy Research.
    8. Nilsson Hakkala, Katariina & Huttunen, Kristiina, 2016. "Worker-level consequences of import shocks," Working Papers 74, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    9. Egger, Peter & Pfaffermayr, Michael & Weber, Andrea, 2003. "Sectoral Adjustment of Employment: The Impact of Outsourcing and Trade at the Micro Level," IZA Discussion Papers 921, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Peter Z. Schochet & Ronald D'Amico & Jillian Berk & Sarah Dolfin & Nathan Wozny, 2012. "Estimated Impacts for Participants in the Trade Adjustment Assistance TAA Program Under the 2002 Amendments," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 582d8723f6884d4eb7a3f95a4, Mathematica Policy Research.
    11. repec:mpr:mprres:7736 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. repec:mpr:mprres:7735 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Lori G. Kletzer, 2004. "Trade-related Job Loss and Wage Insurance: a Synthetic Review," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 724-748, November.
    14. Ronald D'Amico & Peter Z. Schochet, 2012. "The Evaluation of the Trade Adjustment Assistance Program: A Synthesis of Major Findings," Mathematica Policy Research Reports c6b34445ad854f5d8178f580f, Mathematica Policy Research.
    15. Erhan Artuc, 2009. "Intergenerational Effects of Trade Liberalization," 2009 Meeting Papers 870, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    16. repec:mpr:mprres:7742 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Kletzer, Lori, 2003. "Trade-related Job Loss and Wage Insurance: A Synthetic Review," Santa Cruz Center for International Economics, Working Paper Series qt27w182ht, Center for International Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    18. Roger White, 2010. "Migration and International Trade," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13670.
    19. Lori G. Kletzer, 2006. "Comment on "We Can Work It Out: The Globalization of ICT-Enabled Services"," NBER Chapters,in: International Trade in Services and Intangibles in the Era of Globalization, pages 325-328 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Ivan T. Kandilov, 2009. "The Effects Of Trade With Developing Countries On The Regional Demand For Skill In The U.S.: Evidence From County Data," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 459-482.
    21. Nilsson Hakkala, Katariina & Huttunen, Kristiina, 2016. "Worker-Level Consequences of Import Shocks," IZA Discussion Papers 10033, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    22. Kletzer, Lori, 2003. "Trade-related Job Loss and Wage Insurance: A Synthetic Review," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt27w182ht, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.

    More about this item


    trade; international trade; free trade; job loss; worker dislocation; NAFTA;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions


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