IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Noncognitive skills in economics: Models, measurement, and empirical evidence

  • Thiel, Hendrik
  • Thomsen, Stephan L.

There is an increasing economic literature considering personality traits as a source of individual differences in labor market productivity and other outcomes. This paper provides an overview on the role of these skills regarding three main aspects: measurement, development over the life course, and outcomes. Based on the relevant literature from different disciplines, the common psychometric measures used to assess personality are discussed and critical assumptions for their application are highlighted. We sketch current research that aims at incorporating personality traits into economic models of decision making. A recently proposed production function of human capital which takes personality into account is reviewed in light of the findings about life cycle dynamics in other disciplines. Based on these foundations, the main results of the empirical literature regarding noncognitive skills are briefly summarized. Moreover, we discuss common econometric pitfalls that evolve in empirical analysis of personality traits and possible solutions.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: https://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/54966/1/684245213.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 09-076 [rev.].

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:09076r
Contact details of provider: Postal:
L 7,1; D - 68161 Mannheim

Phone: +49/621/1235-01
Fax: +49/621/1235-224
Web page: http://www.zew.de/
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. anonymous, 2006. "Alabama's economy gains strength in 2006," EconSouth, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q 4.
  2. anonymous, 2006. "Southeastern economy to grow modestly in 2007," EconSouth, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q 4.
  3. Coneus, Katja & Gernandt, Johannes & Saam, Marianne, 2009. "Noncognitive skills, school achievements and educational dropout," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-019, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  4. Currie, Janet & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Does Head Start Make a Difference?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 341-64, June.
  5. repec:adr:anecst:y:1991:i:20-21:p:04 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. James J. Heckman & Jora Stixrud & Sergio Urzua, 2006. "The Effects of Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities on Labor Market Outcomes and Social Behavior," NBER Working Papers 12006, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Leibowitz, Arleen, 1974. "Home Investments in Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S111-S131, Part II, .
  8. Piatek, Rémi & Pinger, Pia R., 2010. "Maintaining (locus of) control? Assessing the impact of locus of control on education decisions and wages," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-093, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  9. Anke Becker & Thomas Deckers & Thomas Dohmen & Armin Falk & Fabian Kosse, 2012. "The Relationship Between Economic Preferences and Psychological Personality Measures," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 4(1), pages 453-478, 07.
  10. anonymous, 2006. "Fed's focus on economic education remains strong," Financial Update, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q 1.
  11. Antecol, Heather & Cobb-Clark, Deborah A., 2010. "Do Non-Cognitive Skills Help Explain the Occupational Segregation of Young People?," IZA Discussion Papers 5093, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Flavio Cunha & James Heckman & Susanne Schennach, 2010. "Estimating the technology of cognitive and noncognitive skill formation," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/10, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  13. repec:fth:prinin:366 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Borghans Lex & Golsteyn Bart & Heckman James & Humphries John Eric, 2011. "Identification Problems in Personality Psychology," ROA Research Memorandum 004, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
  15. Chen, Xiaohong, 2007. "Large Sample Sieve Estimation of Semi-Nonparametric Models," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 76 Elsevier.
  16. Pedro Carneiro & Karsten T. Hansen & James J. Heckman, 2003. "Estimating Distributions of Treatment Effects with an Application to the Returns to Schooling and Measurement of the Effects of Uncertainty on College," NBER Working Papers 9546, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Carneiro, Pedro & Hansen, Karsten & Heckman, James, 2003. "Estimating distributions of treatment effects with an application to the returns to schooling and measurement of the effects of uncertainty on college choice," Working Paper Series 2003:9, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  18. John, Katrin & Thomsen, Stephan L., 2012. "Heterogeneous Returns to Personality - The Role of Occupational Choice," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-495, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
  19. Fabian Kosse & Friedhelm Pfeiffer, 2012. "Impatience among Preschool Children and Their Mothers," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 431, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  20. Laucht, Manfred & Coneus, Katja & Blomeyer, Dorothea & Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 2008. "Initial Risk Matrix, Home Resources, Ability Development and Children's Achievement," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-100, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  21. Barrett, Alan & Kearney, Ide & McCarthy, Yvonne, 2006. "Quarterly Economic Commentary, Winter 2006," Forecasting Report, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number QEC20064, December.
  22. Flavio Cunha & James Heckman, 2007. "The Technology of Skill Formation," NBER Working Papers 12840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Richard Spady, 2006. "Identification and estimation of latent attitudes and their behavioral implications," CeMMAP working papers CWP12/06, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  24. James J. Heckman, 2008. "Schools, Skills, And Synapses," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 46(3), pages 289-324, 07.
  25. Thomas DeLeire & Margo Coleman, 2000. "An Economic Model of Locus of Control and the Human Capital Investment Decision," Working Papers 0019, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
  26. Montizaan, R.M. & Vendrik, M.C.M., 2012. "Misery loves company: exogenous shocks in retirement expectations and social comparison effects on subjective well-being," Research Memorandum 048, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
  27. Borghans Lex & Meijers Huub & Weel Bas ter, 2006. "The Role of Noncognitive Skills in Explaining Cognitive Test Scores," ROA Research Memorandum 006, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
  28. Nicole M. Fortin, 2008. "The Gender Wage Gap among Young Adults in the United States: The Importance of Money versus People," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
  29. Deborah Cobb-Clark & Stefanie Schurer, 2011. "The Stability of Big-Five Personality Traits," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2011n21, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  30. ., 2006. "Islam, Governance and Economic Development," Chapters, in: Middle East Oil Exporters, chapter 3 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  31. Lex Borghans & Bas ter Weel & Bruce A. Weinberg, 2007. "Interpersonal Styles and Labor Market Outcomes," NBER Working Papers 12846, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  32. James J. Heckman, 2011. "Integrating Personality Psychology into Economics," NBER Working Papers 17378, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  33. ., 2006. "Human Development and Economic Growth," Chapters, in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 51 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  34. Cunha, Flavio & Heckman, James J., 2009. "The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development," IZA Discussion Papers 4001, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  35. Sen, Anindya, 2006. "Microeconomics: Theory and Applications," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780195686463, December.
  36. Pedro Carneiro & Claire Crawford & Alissa Goodman, 2007. "The Impact of Early Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills on Later Outcomes," CEE Discussion Papers 0092, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
  37. -, 2006. "Informe estadístico de la economía brasileña," Informe Estadístico – Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia 28050, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  38. Samuel Cameron & Alan Collins, 2006. "Addict Death and Welfare Economics," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(4), pages 963-969, October.
  39. Gerrit Mueller & Erik Plug, 2006. "Estimating the Effect of Personality on Male and Female Earnings," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(1), pages 3-22, October.
  40. Dohmen, Thomas J & Falk, Armin & Huffman, David & Sunde, Uwe, 2008. "Are Risk Aversion and Impatience Related to Cognitive Ability?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6852, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  41. Eric Knudsen & James J. Heckman & Judy Cameron & Jack P. Shonkoff, 2006. "Economic, Neurobiological and Behavioral Perspectives on Building America’s Future Workforce," World Economics, World Economics, Economic & Financial Publishing, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 7(3), pages 17-41, July.
  42. Alan B. Krueger & David A. Schkade, 2007. "Sorting in the Labor Market: Do Gregarious Workers Flock to Interactive Jobs?," Working Papers 63, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
  43. David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1996. "School Resources and Student Outcomes: An Overview of the Literature and New Evidence from North and South Carolina," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(4), pages 31-50, Fall.
  44. N/A, 2006. "The UK Economy," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 196(1), pages 40-59, April.
  45. Carneiro, Pedro & Heckman, James J., 2002. "The Evidence on Credit Constraints in Post-Secondary Schooling," IZA Discussion Papers 518, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  46. S. Rao Aiyagari & Jeremy Greenwood & Ananth Seshadri, 2001. "Efficient investment in children," Working Paper 0105, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  47. Hansen, Karsten T. & Heckman, James J. & Mullen, K.J.Kathleen J., 2004. "The effect of schooling and ability on achievement test scores," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 39-98.
  48. ., 2006. "Agriculture and Economic Growth," Chapters, in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  49. Arleen Leibowitz, 1974. "Home Investments in Children," NBER Chapters, in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 111-135 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  50. Sergio Urzúa, 2008. "Racial Labor Market Gaps: The Role of Abilities and Schooling Choices," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
  51. -, 2006. "Informe estadístico de la economía brasileña," Informe Estadístico – Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia 28051, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  52. Guido Heineck & Silke Anger, 2008. "The Returns to Cognitive Abilities and Personality Traits in Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 124, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  53. Lee Cronbach, 1951. "Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 16(3), pages 297-334, September.
  54. Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman, 2008. "Formulating, Identifying and Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
  55. Coneus, Katja & Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 2007. "Self-Productivity in Early Childhood," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-053, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  56. ., 2006. "Broad Economic Indicators and Performance," Chapters, in: Middle East Oil Exporters, chapter 6 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  57. -, 2006. "Informe estadístico de la economía brasileña," Informe Estadístico – Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia 28048, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  58. S. Kolm & Jean Mercier Ythier (ed.), 2006. "Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 1, number 1.
  59. Jeoffrey H.G. Malek Mansour, 2006. "Three essays in international economics," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/210878, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  60. H. Schneeweiß, 1976. "Consistent estimation of a regression with errors in the variables," Metrika: International Journal for Theoretical and Applied Statistics, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 101-115, December.
  61. Mathilde Almlund & Angela Lee Duckworth & James J. Heckman & Tim D. Kautz, 2011. "Personality Psychology and Economics," NBER Working Papers 16822, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  62. Cunha, Flavio & Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance, 2006. "Interpreting the Evidence on Life Cycle Skill Formation," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
  63. ., 2006. "International political economy," Chapters, in: International Economics and Confusing Politics, chapter 1 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  64. McKinley Blackburn & David Neumark, 1991. "Unobserved Ability, Efficiency Wages, and Interindustry Wage Differentials," NBER Working Papers 3857, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  65. ., 2006. "Economics and international politics," Chapters, in: International Economics and Confusing Politics, chapter 10 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  66. N/A, 2006. "Economic Overview," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 196(1), pages 2-3, April.
  67. Melissa Osborne & Herbert Gintis & Samuel Bowles, 2001. "The Determinants of Earnings: A Behavioral Approach," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1137-1176, December.
  68. Gary S. Becker & Casey B. Mulligan, 1997. "The Endogenous Determination of Time Preference," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 729-758.
  69. ., 2006. "Nonlinear Dynamics of Economic Development," Chapters, in: Innovation Dynamism and Economic Growth, chapter 12 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  70. -, 2006. "Informe estadístico de la economía brasileña," Informe Estadístico – Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia 28046, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  71. Lex Borghans & Angela Lee Duckworth & James J. Heckman & Bas ter Weel, 2008. "The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits," NBER Working Papers 13810, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  72. David Card & Alan Krueger, 1996. "School Resources and Student Outcomes: An Overview of the Literature and New Evidence from North and South Carolina," Working Papers 745, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  73. Richard H. Spady, 2007. "Semiparametric Methods for the Measurement of Latent Attitudes and the Estimation of Their Behavioural Consequences," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/29, European University Institute.
  74. repec:ecr:col095:38777 is not listed on IDEAS
  75. Barrett, Alan & Kearney, Ide & McCarthy, Yvonne & Doyle, Nicola, 2006. "Quarterly Economic Commentary, Spring 2006," Forecasting Report, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number QEC20061, December.
  76. Fehr, Ernst & Schmidt, Klaus M., . "The Economics of Fairness, Reciprocity and Altruism - Experimental Evidence and New Theories," Chapters in Economics, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  77. Gary S. Becker & Nigel Tomes, 1994. "Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families," NBER Chapters, in: Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education (3rd Edition), pages 257-298 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  78. -, 2006. "Informe estadístico de la economía brasileña," Informe Estadístico – Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia 28052, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  79. ., 2006. "Stock Market and Economic Development," Chapters, in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 117 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  80. Yoram Ben-Porath, 1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life Cycle of Earnings," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 352.
  81. Coneus, Katja & Gernandt, Johannes & Saam, Marianne, 2008. "Noncognitive Skills, Internet Use and Educational Dropout," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-044, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  82. Enrico Moretti, 2002. "Estimating the Social Return to Higher Education: Evidence From Longitudinal and Repeated Cross-Sectional Data," NBER Working Papers 9108, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  83. Janet Currie, 2008. "Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise: Socioeconomic Status, Poor Health in Childhood, and Human Capital Development," NBER Working Papers 13987, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  84. Arleen Leibowitz, 1974. "Home Investments in Children," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 432-456 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  85. Barrett, Alan & Kearney, Ide & McCarthy, Yvonne, 2006. "Quarterly Economic Commentary, Summer 2006," Forecasting Report, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number QEC20062, December.
  86. ., 2006. "Military Expenditure and Economic Growth," Chapters, in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 77 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  87. ., 2006. "National Economic Planning," Chapters, in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 83 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  88. Nils Braakmann, 2009. "Psychological traits and the gender gap in full-time employment and wages: Evidence from Germany," Working Paper Series in Economics 112, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  89. Anonymous, 2006. "Minnesota Applied Economist 718, Fall 2006," Minnesota Applied Economist/Minnesota Agricultural Economist 13214, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
  90. Barrett, Alan & Kearney, Ide & McCarthy, Yvonne, 2006. "Quarterly Economic Commentary, Autumn 2006," Forecasting Report, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number QEC20063, December.
  91. ., 2006. "Promoting economic developement," Chapters, in: International Economics and Confusing Politics, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  92. Groves, Melissa Osborne, 2005. "How important is your personality? Labor market returns to personality for women in the US and UK," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 827-841, December.
  93. N/A, 2006. "Understanding India's Political Economy," International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, vol. 43(1), pages 93-99, January.
  94. Eric I. Knudsen & James J. Heckman & Judy L. Cameron & Jack P. Shonkoff, 2006. "Economic, Neurobiological and Behavioral Perspectives on Building America's Future Workforce," NBER Working Papers 12298, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  95. ., 2006. "The Economic System and its Reform," Chapters, in: Economic Reform in China and India, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  96. -, 2006. "Informe estadístico de la economía brasileña," Informe Estadístico – Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia 28045, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  97. ., 2006. "Economic Aid," Chapters, in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 29 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  98. -, 2006. "Informe estadístico de la economía brasileña," Informe Estadístico – Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia 28049, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  99. Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman, 2009. "The Economics & Psychology of Inequality and Human Development," Working Papers 200905, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  100. Qin, Duo & Cagas, Marie Anne & Ducanes, Geoffrey & He, Xinhua & Liu, Rui & Liu, Shiguo & Magtibay-Ramos, Nedelyn & Quising, Pilipinas, 2007. "A macroeconometric model of the Chinese economy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 814-822, September.
  101. S. Kolm & Jean Mercier Ythier (ed.), 2006. "Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 2, number 2.
  102. Anonymous, 2006. "Minnesota Applied Economist 717, Summer 2006," Minnesota Applied Economist/Minnesota Agricultural Economist 13164, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
  103. repec:pri:indrel:366 is not listed on IDEAS
  104. -, 2006. "Informe estadístico de la economía brasileña," Informe Estadístico – Oficina de la CEPAL en Brasilia 28053, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  105. Hause, John C, 1972. "Earnings Profile: Ability and Schooling," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(3), pages S108-S38, Part II, .
  106. -, 2006. "Economic survey of the Caribbean 2005-2006," Sede Subregional de la CEPAL para el Caribe (Estudios e Investigaciones) 38765, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  107. ., 2006. "Uneconomic Growth," Chapters, in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 127 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  108. Daniel Kahneman & Alan B. Krueger, 2006. "Developments in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 3-24, Winter.
  109. R. Bock & Murray Aitkin, 1981. "Marginal maximum likelihood estimation of item parameters: Application of an EM algorithm," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 46(4), pages 443-459, December.
  110. N/A, 2006. "The World Economy," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 196(1), pages 10-35, April.
  111. Griliches, Zvi, 1977. "Estimating the Returns to Schooling: Some Econometric Problems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(1), pages 1-22, January.
  112. Bound, John & Griliches, Zvi & Hall, Bronwyn H, 1986. "Wages, Schooling and IQ of Brothers and Sisters: Do the Family Factors Differ?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(1), pages 77-105, February.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:09076r. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.