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Fostering and Measuring Skills: Interventions That Improve Character and Cognition

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  • James Heckman

    () (University of Chicago)

  • Tim Kautz

    () (University of Chicago)

Abstract

This paper reviews the recent literature on measuring and boosting cognitive and noncognitive skills. The literature establishes that achievement tests do not adequately capture character skills--personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences--that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. Their predictive power rivals that of cognitive skills. Reliable measures of character have been developed. All measures of character and cognition are measures of performance on some task. In order to reliably estimate skills from tasks, it is necessary to standardize for incentives, effort, and other skills when measuring any particular skill. Character is a skill, not a trait. At any age, character skills are stable across different tasks, but skills can change over the life cycle. Character is shaped by families, schools, and social environments. Skill development is a dynamic process, in which the early years lay the foundation for successful investment in later years. High-quality early childhood and elementary school programs improve character skills in a lasting and cost-effective way. Many of them beneficially affect later-life outcomes without improving cognition. There are fewer long-term evaluations of adolescent interventions, but workplace-based programs that teach character skills are promising. The common feature of successful interventions across all stages of the life cycle through adulthood is that they promote attachment and provide a secure base for exploration and learning for the child. Successful interventions emulate the mentoring environments offered by successful families.

Suggested Citation

  • James Heckman & Tim Kautz, 2013. "Fostering and Measuring Skills: Interventions That Improve Character and Cognition," Working Papers 2013-019, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
  • Handle: RePEc:hka:wpaper:2013-019
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    Cited by:

    1. Yann Algan & Elizabeth Beasley & Richard E. Tremblay & Frank Vitaro, 2014. "The Impact of Non-Cognitive Skills Training on Academic and Non-academic Trajectories: From Childhood to Early Adulthood," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/6i8t2rdgh48, Sciences Po.
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    3. Christopher Blattman & Julian C. Jamison & Margaret Sheridan, 2015. "Reducing crime and violence: Experimental evidence from cognitive behavioral therapy in Liberia," NBER Working Papers 21204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Roland G. Fryer, Jr, 2016. "The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments," NBER Working Papers 22130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Spermann, Alexander, 2014. "Online-Portale für Kompetenztests – ein Baustein für die Demografiestrategie Deutschlands," IZA Standpunkte 67, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. repec:eee:ecoedu:v:58:y:2017:i:c:p:55-67 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Seth Gershenson & Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, 2016. "Linking Teacher Quality, Student Attendance, and Student Achievement," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 11(2), pages 125-149, Spring.
    8. Janssens, Wendy & Rosemberg, Cristina, 2014. "The impact of a Caribbean home-visiting child development program on cognitive skills," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 22-37.
    9. Orazio Attanasio & Costas Meghir & Emily Nix & Francesca Salvati, 2017. "Human Capital Growth and Poverty: Evidence from Ethiopia and Peru," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 25, pages 234-259, April.
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    13. Ali Mehdi & Divya Chaudhry, 2016. "Human capital potential of India’s future workforce," Working Papers id:11079, eSocialSciences.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Character; achievement tests; skill development; interventions;

    JEL classification:

    • D01 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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