IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v92y2016icp234-245.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Statistical properties of country risk ratings under oil price volatility: Evidence from selected oil-exporting countries

Author

Listed:
  • Liu, Chang
  • Sun, Xiaolei
  • Chen, Jianming
  • Li, Jianping

Abstract

This paper focuses on the application of panel models for identification and analysis of influence of oil price volatility on statistical properties of country risk ratings which stem from uncertainty of macroeconomic fluctuations. Firstly, two statistical properties of country risk ratings, volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision were identified in a theoretical framework based on Cruces (2006). Secondly, considering the oil price volatility, numerical experiments were conducted based on extended models to test and verify specific properties of country risk ratings in selected oil-exporting countries. Empirical results suggest that properties of country risk remain comparatively steady despite oil price volatility. It is also found that the oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate the country risk volatility, as it happened during 2007–2009. Country clustering based on the properties of country risk ratings shows that the selected countries maintain a significant clustering tendency. These features are of great importance for estimating risk exposure of international trade and investments in oil export during extreme situations.

Suggested Citation

  • Liu, Chang & Sun, Xiaolei & Chen, Jianming & Li, Jianping, 2016. "Statistical properties of country risk ratings under oil price volatility: Evidence from selected oil-exporting countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 234-245.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:92:y:2016:i:c:p:234-245
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.02.007
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516300489
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Nazmi, Nader, 2002. "Global finance, sovereign risk and economic performance of Brazil," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 865-874.
    2. Fathi Ali & Norbert Fiess & Ronald MacDonald, 2010. "Do Institutions Matter for Foreign Direct Investment?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 201-219, April.
    3. Hoti, Suhejla, 2005. "Modelling country spillover effects in country risk ratings," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 324-345, December.
    4. Vivoda, Vlado, 2009. "Diversification of oil import sources and energy security: A key strategy or an elusive objective?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4615-4623, November.
    5. Reboredo, Juan C., 2012. "Modelling oil price and exchange rate co-movements," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 419-440.
    6. Cuadra, Gabriel & Sapriza, Horacio, 2008. "Sovereign default, interest rates and political uncertainty in emerging markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 78-88, September.
    7. Benitez, Pablo C. & McCallum, Ian & Obersteiner, Michael & Yamagata, Yoshiki, 2007. "Global potential for carbon sequestration: Geographical distribution, country risk and policy implications," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 572-583, January.
    8. Cunado, J. & Perez de Gracia, F., 2005. "Oil prices, economic activity and inflation: evidence for some Asian countries," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 65-83, February.
    9. Kilian, Lutz & Rebucci, Alessandro & Spatafora, Nikola, 2009. "Oil shocks and external balances," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 181-194, April.
    10. Umbach, Frank, 2010. "Global energy security and the implications for the EU," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1229-1240, March.
    11. Kazunobu Hayakawa & Fukunari Kimura & Hyun-Hoon Lee, 2013. "How Does Country Risk Matter for Foreign Direct Investment?," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 51(1), pages 60-78, March.
    12. Francesco Caselli & Guy Michaels, 2013. "Do Oil Windfalls Improve Living Standards? Evidence from Brazil," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 208-238, January.
    13. Altman, Edward I. & Saunders, Anthony, 1997. "Credit risk measurement: Developments over the last 20 years," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(11-12), pages 1721-1742, December.
    14. Kolstad, Ivar & Villanger, Espen, 2008. "Determinants of foreign direct investment in services," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 518-533, June.
    15. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
    16. Lorde, Troy & Jackman, Mahalia & Thomas, Chrystol, 2009. "The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2708-2716, July.
    17. Mehrara, Mohsen & Oskoui, Kamran Niki, 2007. "The sources of macroeconomic fluctuations in oil exporting countries: A comparative study," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 365-379, May.
    18. Nandha, Mohan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat, 2007. "Systematic risk, and oil price and exchange rate sensitivities in Asia-Pacific stock markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 326-341, June.
    19. Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Li, Huimin, 2005. "Oil sensitivity and systematic risk in oil-sensitive stock indices," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 1-21.
    20. Hodler, Roland, 2006. "The curse of natural resources in fractionalized countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(6), pages 1367-1386, August.
    21. Brown, Stephen P. A. & Yucel, Mine K., 2002. "Energy prices and aggregate economic activity: an interpretative survey," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 193-208.
    22. Hammer, P.L. & Kogan, A. & Lejeune, M.A., 2006. "Modeling country risk ratings using partial orders," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 175(2), pages 836-859, December.
    23. Johansson, Anders C., 2010. "Asian sovereign debt and country risk," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 335-350, September.
    24. Manrai, Lalita A. & Manrai, Ajay K. & Lascu, Dana-Nicoleta, 2001. "A country-cluster analysis of the distribution and promotion infrastructure in Central and Eastern Europe," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 517-549, October.
    25. Kabir Hassan, M. & Maroney, Neal C. & Monir El-Sady, Hassan & Telfah, Ahmad, 2003. "Country risk and stock market volatility, predictability, and diversification in the Middle East and Africa," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 63-82, March.
    26. Gupta, Eshita, 2008. "Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 1195-1211, March.
    27. Ang, James B., 2008. "Determinants of foreign direct investment in Malaysia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 185-189.
    28. Busse, Matthias & Hefeker, Carsten, 2007. "Political risk, institutions and foreign direct investment," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 397-415, June.
    29. Brückner, Markus & Gradstein, Mark, 2015. "Income growth, ethnic polarization, and political risk: Evidence from international oil price shocks," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 575-594.
    30. Fayyad, Abdallah & Daly, Kevin, 2011. "The impact of oil price shocks on stock market returns: Comparing GCC countries with the UK and USA," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 61-78, March.
    31. Rios-Morales, Ruth & Gamberger, Dragan & Smuc, Tom & Azuaje, Francisco, 2009. "Innovative methods in assessing political risk for business internationalization," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 144-156, June.
    32. Yang, Yuying & Li, Jianping & Sun, Xiaolei & Chen, Jianming, 2014. "Measuring external oil supply risk: A modified diversification index with country risk and potential oil exports," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 930-938.
    33. Cunado, Juncal & Perez de Gracia, Fernando, 2003. "Do oil price shocks matter? Evidence for some European countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 137-154, March.
    34. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    35. Rafiq, Shuddhasawtta & Salim, Ruhul & Bloch, Harry, 2009. "Impact of crude oil price volatility on economic activities: An empirical investigation in the Thai economy," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 121-132, September.
    36. Murray Wolfson & Zagros Madjd-Sadjadi & Patrick James, 2004. "Identifying National Types: A Cluster Analysis of Politics, Economics, and Conflict," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 41(5), pages 607-623, September.
    37. Lutz Kilian, 2009. "Not All Oil Price Shocks Are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 1053-1069, June.
    38. Gnansounou, Edgard, 2008. "Assessing the energy vulnerability: Case of industrialised countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 3734-3744, October.
    39. Ewing, Bradley T. & Thompson, Mark A., 2007. "Dynamic cyclical comovements of oil prices with industrial production, consumer prices, unemployment, and stock prices," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5535-5540, November.
    40. Verma, Rahul & Soydemir, Gokce, 2006. "Modeling country risk in Latin America: A country beta approach," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 192-213, December.
    41. Agliardi, Elettra & Agliardi, Rossella & Pinar, Mehmet & Stengos, Thanasis & Topaloglou, Nikolas, 2012. "A new country risk index for emerging markets: A stochastic dominance approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 741-761.
    42. Juliana Yim & Heather Mitchell, 2005. "A comparison of corporate distress prediction models in Brazil: hybrid neural networks, logit models and discriminant analysis," Nova Economia, Economics Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil), vol. 15(1), pages 73-93, January-A.
    43. Nordal, Kjell B., 2001. "Country risk, country risk indices and valuation of FDI: a real options approach," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 197-217, September.
    44. Cruces, Juan J., 2006. "Statistical properties of country credit ratings," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 27-51, March.
    45. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    46. Oetzel, Jennifer M. & Bettis, Richard A. & Zenner, Marc, 2001. "Country risk measures: how risky are they?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 128-145, July.
    47. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    48. Xu, Tang & Baosheng, Zhang & Lianyong, Feng & Masri, Marwan & Honarvar, Afshin, 2011. "Economic impacts and challenges of China’s petroleum industry: An input–output analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 2905-2911.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lee, Chi-Chuan & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Ning, Shao-Lin, 2017. "Dynamic relationship of oil price shocks and country risks," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 571-581.
    2. Fernandes, Leonardo H.S. & Araújo, Fernando H.A., 2020. "Taxonomy of commodities assets via complexity-entropy causality plane," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 137(C).
    3. Hasan Dinçer & Serhat Yüksel & Seçil Şenel, 2018. "Analyzing the Global Risks for the Financial Crisis after the Great Depression Using Comparative Hybrid Hesitant Fuzzy Decision-Making Models: Policy Recommendations for Sustainable Economic Growth," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(9), pages 1-15, September.
    4. İhsan Pençe & Adnan Kalkan & Melike Şişeci Çeşmeli, 2019. "Estimation of the Country Ranking Scores on the Global Innovation Index 2016 Using the Artificial Neural Network Method," International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 16(04), pages 1-16, June.
    5. Fernandes, Leonardo H.S. & de Araújo, Fernando H.A. & Silva, Igor E.M., 2020. "The (in)efficiency of NYMEX energy futures: A multifractal analysis," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 556(C).
    6. Lee, Chi-Chuan & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2019. "Oil price shocks and Chinese banking performance: Do country risks matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 46-53.
    7. Zhou, Na & Wu, Qiaosheng & Hu, Xiangping & Xu, Deyi & Wang, Xiaolin, 2020. "Evaluation of Chinese natural gas investment along the Belt and Road Initiative using super slacks-based measurement of efficiency method," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    8. Bouri, Elie & Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Raza, Naveed & Roubaud, David, 2018. "Oil volatility and sovereign risk of BRICS," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 258-269.
    9. Bouri, Elie & Kachacha, Imad & Roubaud, David, 2020. "Oil market conditions and sovereign risk in MENA oil exporters and importers," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C).
    10. Chien‐Chiang Lee & Chi‐Chuan Lee & Donald Lien, 2019. "Do country risk and financial uncertainty matter for energy commodity futures?," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 39(3), pages 366-383, March.
    11. Bouri, Elie & Jalkh, Naji & Roubaud, David, 2019. "Commodity volatility shocks and BRIC sovereign risk: A GARCH-quantile approach," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 385-392.
    12. Zhang, Jing, 2019. "Oil and gas trade between China and countries and regions along the ‘Belt and Road’: A panoramic perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 1111-1120.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:92:y:2016:i:c:p:234-245. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.