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Diferenciales salariales por género y región en Colombia: una aproximación con regresión por cuantiles

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  • Luis Armando Galvis

Abstract

RESUMEN: La existencia de brechas salariales por género es un fenómeno que, al igual que en muchos otros países, está presente en el mercado laboral colombiano. Esas brechas no son homogéneas en todo el territorio, lo que justifica un análisis detallado de lo que ocurre en cada una de las regiones del país. Los resultados muestran diferenciales de salarios positivos en favor de los hombres en la mayoría de las ciudades principales. Sin embargo, no todo este fenómeno puede ser atribuido a la existencia de discriminación, por cuanto existen variados factores que explican parte de la brecha salarial. Para identificarlos se emplea la descomposición de Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) en el contexto de regresión por cuantiles. Los resultados de la aplicación de esta metodología sugieren que las brechas salariales no están explicadas por los atributos observables de los individuos. Dichas disparidades son en su mayoría explicadas por el efecto de las diferencias en la remuneración de atributos tales como la educación, además de elementos no observados. Por ciudades, el estudio muestra patrones que revelan una mayor brecha salarial en las regiones periféricas en comparación con Bogotá, Cali, Medellín, Manizales y Pereira. Dado que el efecto remuneración comprende, entre otros, la posible existencia de discriminación por género, es importante que se le otorgue la debida atención a este resultado para efectos de formular políticas en este sentido.ABSTRACT: The evidence of gender pay gap is present in the Colombian labormarket, as in many other countries. This gap is not homogeneous in the territory,which provides the rationale for a detailed analysis of what is happening in each of the regions of the country. The results show differentials of positive wage gaps in favor of men, in most of the main cities. Not all this difference can be attributed to the existence of discrimination as there exist factors that explain part of the wage gap. To identify the relevance of those factors we use the Blinder-Oaxaca, BO, decomposition in the context of quantile regression. The results of the BOmethod suggest that wage gaps are not explained by the observable attributes of individuals. These gaps are mostly explained by the effect of pay gaps to attributes such as education, and unobserved attributes. The analysis by cities shows patterns that reveal a higher wage gap in the peripheral cities as opposed to Bogotá, Cali, Medellín, Manizales and Pereira. Differences in compensation to attributes are represented by what is known as the coefficients effect. This effect comprises as well the existence of discrimination by gender, thus this result deserves special attention for the purposes of gender equalizing payment policies

Suggested Citation

  • Luis Armando Galvis, 2010. "Diferenciales salariales por género y región en Colombia: una aproximación con regresión por cuantiles," Revista de Economía del Rosario, Universidad del Rosario, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000151:008874
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    1. Arango-Thomas, Luis Eduardo, 2012. "Mercado de trabajo de Colombia : suma de partes heterogéneas," Chapters, in: Arango-Thomas, Luis Eduardo & Hamann-Salcedo, Franz Alonso (ed.), El mercado de trabajo en Colombia : hechos, tendencias e instituciones, chapter 4, pages 167-205, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    2. Luis E. Arango & Luz A. Flórez & María A. Olarte-Delgado, 2019. "Precio del carbón y dinámica laboral en Valledupar," Revista de Economía del Rosario, Universidad del Rosario, vol. 22(2), pages 313-370, December.
    3. Carmiña O: Vargas, 2011. "Desigualdad de salarios en Colombia: evidencia a partir de encuestas de hogares 1984 - 2010," Borradores de Economia 8808, Banco de la Republica.
    4. Gustavo A. García, 2017. "Labor Informality: Choice or Sign of Segmentation? A Quantile Regression Approach at the Regional Level for Colombia," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 985-1017, November.
    5. Arango-Thomas, Luis Eduardo & Hamann-Salcedo, Franz Alonso (ed.), 2012. "El mercado de trabajo en Colombia : hechos, tendencias e instituciones," Books, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, number 2012-12, December.
    6. Sánchez-Jabba, Andrés Mauricio, 2014. "Etnia y rendimiento académico en Colombia," Chapters, in: Sánchez Jabba, Andrés & Otero Cortés, Andrea (ed.), Educación y desarrollo regional en Colombia, chapter 2, pages 59-100, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    7. Luis Armando Galvis, 2013. "¿El triunfo de Bogotá?: desempeno reciente de la ciudad capital," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, June.
    8. Luis Armando Galvis A., 2012. "Informalidad laboral en las áreas urbanas de Colombia," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, June.
    9. Luis Eduardo Arango Thomas, 2011. "Mercado de trabajo de Colombia: suma de partes heterogéneas," Borradores de Economia 9006, Banco de la Republica.
    10. Mora, Jhon James & Arcila, Andrés Mauricio, 2014. "Brechas salariales por etnia y ubicación geográfica en Santiago de Cali || Wage Gap by Geographic Location and Ethnicity in Cali (Colombia)," Revista de Métodos Cuantitativos para la Economía y la Empresa = Journal of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, vol. 18(1), pages 34-53, December.
    11. Dustin T. G. RODRIGUEZ, 2016. "Returns to Education of Colombian Economists: Analysis from the Theory of Human Capital (2009-2013)," Journal of Economic and Social Thought, KSP Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 139-149, March.
    12. Luis C. Díaz-Canedo, 2018. "[Resena] Mercado laboral, desempleo femenino y brechas por género en Colombia," Revista Economía y Región, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, vol. 12(1), pages 169-177, June.
    13. Cristian Dario Castillo Robayo & Julimar Da Silva Bichara & Manuel Pérez-Trujillo, 2017. "Retornos salariales para Colombia, un análisis cuantílico," Apuntes del Cenes, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, vol. 36(63), pages 211-246, January.
    14. Juan Byron Correa Fonnegra & Carlos Augusto Viáfara López & Víctor Hugo Zuluaga González, 2011. "Desigualdad étnico-racial en la distribución del ingreso en Colombia: Un análisis a partir de Regresión Cuantílica," Revista Sociedad y Economía, Universidad del Valle, CIDSE, February.
    15. María Teresa Ripoll, 2015. "[Ensayo] Género e historia empresarial en Colombia: Un balance bibliográfico, 1980 - 2013," Revista Economía y Región, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, vol. 9(2), pages 201-219, December.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Labor markets; human capital; gender; wage gap; quantile regression.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J70 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - General
    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
    • R10 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - General

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