IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/ana/journl/v2y2016i1p3-29.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Evolving Patterns of Payment Methods in Turkish Foreign Trade

Author

Listed:
  • Kemal Turkcan

    () (Akdeniz University, Department of Economics)

Abstract

Serving the global marketplace brings many risks to the firms that they may not have on the domestic side. Apart from financing, trade finance mechanisms assist exporters and importers to mitigate or reduce their risks associated with doing business internationally. The present paper sheds lights on the structure and evaluation of payment methods in international trade as well as their changing composition due to 2008-2009 global financial crisis using a unique bilateral trade finance data from Turkey with 206 countries over the period 2002-2012 at the 2-digit level of ISIC Revision 3. Three key results emerge. First, Turkey’s exports are mainly financed via open account method while the majority of its imports were executed via cash-in advance method. Second, the shares of inter-firm trade finance (open account and cash-in advance) in Turkey’s foreign trade dramatically increased over the period 2002-2012, while the shares of the intermediate trade finance (cash against documents and letter of credit) decreased substantially. Finally, the evidence show that both exporters and importers started to use cash-in advance method, the safest method of payment, more intensively than other methods shortly after the global recession in 2008. Overall, the patterns presented in this paper highlight the fact that Turkish traders are not able to set payment terms that are highly favorable to themselves and bear all risks associated with international trade transactions.

Suggested Citation

  • Kemal Turkcan, 2016. "Evolving Patterns of Payment Methods in Turkish Foreign Trade," World Journal of Applied Economics, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, vol. 2(1), pages 3-29, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:ana:journl:v:2:y:2016:i:1:p:3-29
    DOI: 10.22440/EconWorld.J.2016.2.1.KT.0015
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://journal.econworld.org/index.php/econworld/article/download/15/9
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daniel Paravisini & Veronica Rappoport & Philipp Schnabl & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2015. "Dissecting the Effect of Credit Supply on Trade: Evidence from Matched Credit-Export Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(1), pages 333-359.
    2. Niepmann, Friederike & Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Tim, 2017. "International trade, risk and the role of banks," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 111-126.
    3. Kristian Behrens & Gregory Corcos & Giordano Mion, 2013. "Trade Crisis? What Trade Crisis?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(2), pages 702-709, May.
    4. Kalina Manova, 2013. "Credit Constraints, Heterogeneous Firms, and International Trade," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(2), pages 711-744.
    5. Iacovone, Leonardo & Ferro, Esteban & Pereira-López, Mariana & Zavacka, Veronika, 2019. "Banking crises and exports: Lessons from the past," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 192-204.
    6. Marc Auboin & Martina Engemann, 2014. "Testing the trade credit and trade link: evidence from data on export credit insurance," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(4), pages 715-743, November.
    7. Mateut, Simona & Zanchettin, Piercarlo, 2013. "Credit sales and advance payments: Substitutes or complements?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 118(1), pages 173-176.
    8. Gabriel J. Felbermayr & Erdal Yalcin, 2013. "Export Credit Guarantees and Export Performance: An Empirical Analysis for Germany," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(8), pages 967-999, August.
    9. Silvio Contessi & Francesca de Nicola, 2012. "What do we know about the relationship between access to finance and international trade?," Working Papers 2012-054, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    10. Peter Egger & Thomas Url, 2006. "Public Export Credit Guarantees and Foreign Trade Structure: Evidence from Austria," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 399-418, April.
    11. Saygılı, Hülya & Saygılı, Mesut, 2011. "Structural changes in exports of an emerging economy: Case of Turkey," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 342-360.
    12. Bricongne, Jean-Charles & Fontagné, Lionel & Gaulier, Guillaume & Taglioni, Daria & Vicard, Vincent, 2012. "Firms and the global crisis: French exports in the turmoil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 134-146.
    13. Chee K. Ng & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 1999. "Evidence on the Determinants of Credit Terms Used in Interfirm Trade," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1109-1129, June.
    14. Harald Badinger & Thomas Url, 2013. "Export Credit Guarantees and Export Performance: Evidence from Austrian Firm-level Data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(9), pages 1115-1130, September.
    15. Banu Demir, 2014. "Trade Financing: Challenges for Developing-country Exporters," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 15(3), pages 34-38, August.
    16. Bastos, Rafael & Pindado, Julio, 2013. "Trade credit during a financial crisis: A panel data analysis," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(5), pages 614-620.
    17. Andreas Hoefele & Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr & Zhihong Yu, 2016. "Payment choice in international trade: Theory and evidence from cross-country firm-level data," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 49(1), pages 296-319, February.
    18. Andrei A. Levchenko & Logan Lewis & Linda L. Tesar, 2009. "The Collapse of International Trade During the 2008-2009 Crisis: In Search of the Smoking Gun," Working Papers 592, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    19. Demir, Banu & Javorcik, Beata, 2014. "Grin and Bear It: Producer-financed Exports from an Emerging Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 10142, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Christoph Moser & Thorsten Nestmann & Michael Wedow, 2008. "Political Risk and Export Promotion: Evidence from Germany," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(6), pages 781-803, June.
    21. Chor, Davin & Manova, Kalina, 2012. "Off the cliff and back? Credit conditions and international trade during the global financial crisis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 117-133.
    22. Biais, Bruno & Gollier, Christian, 1997. "Trade Credit and Credit Rationing," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 903-937.
    23. Mike Burkart & Tore Ellingsen, 2004. "In-Kind Finance: A Theory of Trade Credit," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 569-590, June.
    24. Auboin, Marc, 2007. "Boosting trade finance in developing countries: What link with the WTO?," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2007-04, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    25. Ellingsen, Tore & Vlachos, Jonas, 2009. "Trade finance in a liquidity crisis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5136, The World Bank.
    26. Anna Maria C. Menichini, 2011. "Inter‐Firm Trade Finance in Times of Crisis," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(10), pages 1788-1808, October.
    27. Koen van der Veer, 2010. "The Private Credit Insurance Effect on Trade," DNB Working Papers 264, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    28. Thomas William Dorsey & Mika Saito & Armine Khachatryan & Irena Asmundson & Ioana Niculcea, 2011. "Trade and Trade Finance in the 2008-09 Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 11/16, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Method of Payments; Trade Finance; Contract Enforcement; Financial Costs; Post-Shipment; Pre-Payment; Turkey.;

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ana:journl:v:2:y:2016:i:1:p:3-29. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Unal Tongur). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ewanatr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.