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Grin and Bear It: Producer-financed Exports from an Emerging Market

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  • Demir, Banu
  • Javorcik, Beata

Abstract

This study uses a unique dataset to provide the first comprehensive test of the theory of export financing. We extend the existing literature by drawing attention to the theoretical and empirical relationship between the extent of competition in the export market and the choice of financing terms. Our dataset covers the universe of Turkey's exports disaggregated by product, destination, and financing terms for the period 2004-2011. Our identification strategy takes advantage of an exogenous shock, namely, the end of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA), a system of bilateral quotas governing the global trade in textiles and clothing until January 1, 2005. The analysis, based on a difference-in-differences approach, suggests that exporter-financed exports to the European Union disproportionately increased, relative to importer or bank-financed exports, in the post-MFA period in products where Turkish competitors initially faced binding quotas. As Turkey was not bound by EU quotas before the end of the MFA, these results are consistent with an increase in competition pushing Turkish exporters to offer trade financing. Our results also support the other theoretical predictions. They indicate that the prevalence of exporter-financed exports (relative to exports on other financing terms) increases with the institutional quality in the importing country, with this effect being stronger for differentiated products. Exporter-financed exports are also more likely to be destined for countries with a less efficient banking sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Demir, Banu & Javorcik, Beata, 2014. "Grin and Bear It: Producer-financed Exports from an Emerging Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 10142, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:10142
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Andreas Hoefele & Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr & Zhihong Yu, 2016. "Payment choice in international trade: Theory and evidence from cross-country firm-level data," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 49(1), pages 296-319, February.
    2. Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Tim, 2013. "Towards a theory of trade finance," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 96-112.
    3. Ercan Uygur, 2010. "The Global Crisis And The Turkish Economy," Working Papers 2010/3, Turkish Economic Association.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Niepmann, Friederike & Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Tim, 2017. "No guarantees, no trade: How banks affect export patterns," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 338-350.
    2. Türkcan Kemal & Avsar Veysel, 2016. "Investigating the Role of Contract Enforcement and Financial Costs on the Payment Choice: Industry-Level Evidence from Turkey," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 16(1), pages 135-160, March.
    3. Manova, Kalina & Yu, Zhihong, 2016. "How firms export: Processing vs. ordinary trade with financial frictions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 120-137.
    4. A. Berthou & G. Horny & J-S. Mésonnier, 2018. "Dollar Funding and Firm-Level Exports," Working papers 666, Banque de France.
    5. Kemal Turkcan, 2016. "Evolving Patterns of Payment Methods in Turkish Foreign Trade," World Journal of Applied Economics, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, vol. 2(1), pages 3-29, June.
    6. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "A survey of empirical studies using transaction level data on exports and imports," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(1), pages 215-225, February.
    7. Niepmann, Friederike & Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Tim, 2017. "International trade, risk and the role of banks," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 111-126.
    8. Matthieu Crozet & Julian Hinz, 2016. "Collateral Damage: The impact of the Russia sanctions on sanctioning countries’ exports," Working Papers 2016-16, CEPII research center.
    9. C. Fritz Foley & Kalina Manova, 2015. "International Trade, Multinational Activity, and Corporate Finance," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 119-146, August.
    10. Jackie M.L. Chan, 2015. "Trade Intermediation, Financial Frictions, and the Gains from Trade," Discussion Papers 15-009, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
    11. Michalski , Tomasz & Ors , Evren, 2014. "Risk-Based Capital Requirements for Banks and International Trade," Les Cahiers de Recherche 1064, HEC Paris.
    12. Crozet, Matthieu & Hinz, Julian, 2016. "Friendly fire - the trade impact of the Russia sanctions and counter-sanctions," Kiel Working Papers 2059, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    13. Salamat Ali & Richard Kneller & Chris Milner, 2017. "Market-specific trade costs and firm dynamics in Pakistan: Evaluating the US integrated cargo containers control programme," Discussion Papers 2017-02, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    14. Castellares, Renzo & Salas, Jorge, 2016. "Contractual Imperfections and the Impact of Crises on Trade: Evidence from Industry-Level Data," Working Papers 2016-001, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    competition; Great Recession; Multi-Fibre Arrangement; trade financing;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

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