IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets


  • Kaminski, Bartlomiej
  • Ng, Francis


This is an empirical paper seeking to identify the mode of Turkey's integration into global markets in general, and pan-European markets in particular, as revealed in its trade performance. The analysis provides empirical support to the following observations. First, thanks to steady expansion of trade in goods and services since the mid-1980s, Turkey has become highly integrated into the world economy. Second, Turkey's export performance in 1996-2004 in EU markets bears strong similaritiesto the aggregate performance of new EU members from Central Europe (EU-8). Similarities include dynamics, similar factors responsible for the increased presence in EU markets, factor content, and the role of"producer-driven"network trade. Turkey, together with Hungary, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Estonia, and Poland, stands as one of the top performers in"producer-driven"network trade indicating participation in a new global division of labor based on production fragmentation. The available evidence suggests an economic success story in the making. Export expansion owes a lot to improved policy environment and domestic liberalization. It is rather telling that the recent expansion has coincided with the implementation of most of the provisions of the EU-Turkey Customs Union Agreement, the completion of the removal of tariffs on trade in industrial products among pan-European parties to the Pan European Cumulation of Origin Agreement, and improved macroeconomic stability after the 2001 crisis.

Suggested Citation

  • Kaminski, Bartlomiej & Ng, Francis, 2006. "Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3908, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3908

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bernard M. Hoekman & Togan Sübidey, 2005. "Turkey : Economic Reform and Accession to the European Union," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7494, June.
    2. Togan, Sübidey, 1997. "Opening up the Turkish Economy in the Context of the Customs Union with EU," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 12, pages 157-179.
    3. James R. Markusen, 1998. "Multinational Firms, Location and Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(6), pages 733-756, August.
    4. Kaminski, Bartlomiej & Ng, Francis, 2004. "Romania's integration into European markets : implications for sustainability of the current export boom," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3451, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Trade Policy; Economic Theory&Research; Free Trade; Transport Economics Policy&Planning; Trade Law;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3908. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.