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Outsourcing and International Production of a Multinational: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence from Toyota, Thailand

Author

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  • Witada Anukoonwattaka

Abstract

A stylised partial equilibrium model of an MNC is developed. The model incorporates key aspects of outsourcing in a world of falling trade costs. The multinational, with firm-specific capital operates in two countries that differ in factor prices; it produces final goods with firm specific capital but can source multiple intermediate goods internally from each subsidiary (produced with firm-specific capital and labour), or outsource them from domestic or foreign suppliers. There is a potential trade off between scale of final good production and scope of in-house component production. Trade liberalization can affect both country and organization choices of the firm’s component sourcing and final-good production. We also use a previously unused data set on component trade of Toyota in Southeast Asia to conduct an empirical investigation informed by the model insights.

Suggested Citation

  • Witada Anukoonwattaka, 2007. "Outsourcing and International Production of a Multinational: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence from Toyota, Thailand," DEGIT Conference Papers c012_045, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
  • Handle: RePEc:deg:conpap:c012_045
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    File URL: http://degit.sam.sdu.dk/papers/degit_12/C012_045.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Swenson, Deborah L., 2005. "Overseas assembly and country sourcing choices," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 107-130, May.
    2. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson & Deborah L. Swenson, 2000. "Offshore Assembly from the United States: Production Characteristics of the 9802 Program," NBER Chapters,in: The Impact of International Trade on Wages, pages 85-125 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2003. "Outsourcing Versus FDI in Industry Equilibrium," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(2-3), pages 317-327, 04/05.
    4. John McLaren, 2000. ""Globalization" and Vertical Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1239-1254, December.
    5. Ronald W. Jones, 2000. "Globalization and the Theory of Input Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026210086x, January.
    6. Feenstra, Robert C & Hanson, Gordon H, 1996. "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 240-245, May.
    7. James Markusen, 2005. "Modeling the Offshoring of White-Collar Services: From Comparative Advantage to the New Theories of Trade and FDI," NBER Working Papers 11827, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 2005. "Ownership and Control in Outsourcing to China: Estimating the Property-Rights Theory of the Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(2), pages 729-761.
    9. James R. Markusen, 1998. "Multinational Firms, Location and Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(6), pages 733-756, August.
    10. Feenstra, R.C. & Hanson, G.H., 1995. "Foreign Investment, Outsourcing and Relative Wages," Papers 95-14, California Davis - Institute of Governmental Affairs.
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    13. repec:hrv:faseco:4784029 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2002. "Integration versus Outsourcing in Industry Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 85-120.
    15. Jörn Kleinert, 2003. "Growing Trade in Intermediate Goods: Outsourcing, Global Sourcing, or Increasing Importance of MNE Networks?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(3), pages 464-482, August.
    16. Elhanan Helpman, 1985. "Multinational Corporations and Trade Structure," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(3), pages 443-457.
    17. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2008. "Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1978-1997, December.
    18. Barbara Spencer, 2005. "International outsourcing and incomplete contracts," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1107-1135, November.
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    Keywords

    Intra-firm Trade; Trade in intermediate inputs; direct foreign investment; multinational corporations and outsourcing;

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    1. Studies on the automobile industry

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