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The Identification Zoo: Meanings of Identification in Econometrics

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  • Arthur Lewbel

Abstract

Over two dozen different terms for identification appear in the econometrics literature, including set identification, causal identification, local identification, generic identification, weak identification, identification at infinity, and many more. This survey (i) gives a new framework unifying existing definitions of point identification; (ii) summarizes and compares the zooful of different terms associated with identification that appear in the literature; and (iii) discusses concepts closely related to identification, such as normalizations and the differences in identification between structural models and causal, reduced form models.

Suggested Citation

  • Arthur Lewbel, 2019. "The Identification Zoo: Meanings of Identification in Econometrics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 57(4), pages 835-903, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:jeclit:v:57:y:2019:i:4:p:835-903
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/jel.20181361
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    2. Guido W. Imbens & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2009. "Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(1), pages 5-86, March.
    3. Lewbel, Arthur, 2007. "Endogenous selection or treatment model estimation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 141(2), pages 777-806, December.
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    JEL classification:

    • C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics
    • C20 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - General
    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General

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