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Citations for "The Political Economy of Fiscal Adjustments"

by Alberto Alesina & Roberto Perotti & José Tavares

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  1. Anton Burger & Martin Zagler, 2008. "US growth and budget consolidation in the 1990s: was there a non-Keynesian effect?," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 225-235, July.
  2. Troeger, Vera & Schneider, Christina J., 2012. "Strategic Budgeteering and Debt Allocation," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 85, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
  3. Mustafa Ismihan & Kivilcim Metin-Özcan & Aysit Tansel, 2002. "Macroeconomic instability, capital accumulation and growth: The case of Turkey 1963-1999," ERC Working Papers 0204, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Apr 2002.
  4. Reyes Maroto Illera & Carlos Mulas-Granados, 2002. "Duration of Fiscal Budgetary Consolidations in the European Union," European Economy Group Working Papers 18, European Economy Group.
  5. Julia Darby & Anton Muscatelli & Graeme Roy, 2004. "Fiscal Federalism, Fiscal Consolidations and Cuts in Central Government Grants: Evidence from an Event Study," CESifo Working Paper Series 1305, CESifo Group Munich.
  6. Stefano Battilossi, 2003. "Capital Mobility And Financial Repression In Italy, 1960-1990: A Public Finance Perspective," Working Papers in Economic History wh030602, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Historia Económica e Instituciones.
  7. Spyros Blavoukos & George Pagoulatos, 2008. "Fiscal adjustment in Southern Europe: the limits of EMU conditionality," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 5607, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  8. Ismael Sanz & Francisco J. Velázquez, 2001. "The evolution and convergence of the government expenditure composition in the OECD countries: an analysis of the functional distribution," Public Economics 0111005, EconWPA.
  9. Sèna Kimm Gnangnon, 2012. "The Effect of Development Aid Unpredictability and Migrants' Remittances on Fiscal Consolidation in Developing Countries," Working Papers halshs-00677108, HAL.
  10. Alwasiak, Stanislaw & Lewandowska-Kalina, Monika & Kalina, Lech & Kowalewski, Oskar & Mozdzen, Michal & Rybinski, Krzysztof, 2013. "What Determines State Capture in Poland?," MPRA Paper 47057, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Spyros Blavoukos & George Pagoulatos, 2008. "Fiscal Adjustment in Southern Europe: the Limits of EMU Conditionality," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 12, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
  12. Marcela Eslava, 2006. "The Political Economy of Fiscal Policy: Survey," IDB Publications 40058, Inter-American Development Bank.
  13. Carlos Mulas-Granados, 2003. "The Trade-Off between Growth & Equality and the Economic Impact of Alternative Fiscal Adjustment Strategies in the EU," European Economy Group Working Papers 20, European Economy Group.
  14. Margarita Katsimi & Vassilis Sarantides, 2013. "Public Investment and Re-election Prospects in Developed Countries," Working Papers 2013004, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics.
  15. Benedict J. Clements & Sanjeev Gupta & Emanuele Baldacci & Carlos Mulas-Granados, 2004. "Front-Loaded or Back-Loaded Fiscal Adjustments," IMF Working Papers 04/157, International Monetary Fund.
  16. Alex Segura-Ubiergo & Alejandro Simone & Sanjeev Gupta & Qiang Cui, 2010. "New Evidence on Fiscal Adjustment and Growth in Transition Economies," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 52(1), pages 18-37, March.
  17. Benedict J. Clements & Sanjeev Gupta & Emanuele Baldacci & Carlos Mulas-Granados, 2002. "Expenditure Composition, Fiscal Adjustment, and Growth in Low-Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 02/77, International Monetary Fund.
  18. Brender, Adi & Drazen, Allan, 2005. "Political budget cycles in new versus established democracies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(7), pages 1271-1295, October.
  19. Arvate, Paulo Roberto & Avelino, George & Tavares, José, 2009. "Fiscal conservatism in a new democracy: "Sophisticated" versus "naïve" voters," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 125-127, February.
  20. Alessandra Bonfiglioli & Gino Gancia, 2010. "The Political Cost of Reforms," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 847.10, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC), revised 30 May 2011.
  21. Cornelius, Peter K. & Trimbur, Thomas, 2000. "Heterogeneous policy responses and the risk of monetary disintegration in Europe," Research Notes 00-1, Deutsche Bank Research.
  22. Gupta, Sanjeev & Clements, Benedict & Baldacci, Emanuele & Mulas-Granados, Carlos, 2005. "Fiscal policy, expenditure composition, and growth in low-income countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 441-463, April.
  23. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 2011. "Over-optimism in Forecasts by Official Budget Agencies and Its Implications," NBER Working Papers 17239, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  24. Benedict J. Clements & Sanjeev Gupta & Erwin Tiongson & Emanuele Baldacci, 2003. "What Sustains Fiscal Consolidations in Emerging Market Countries?," IMF Working Papers 03/224, International Monetary Fund.
  25. Doris Prammer, 2004. "Expansionary Fiscal Consolidations? An Appraisal of the Literature on Non-Keynesian Effects of Fiscal Policy and a Case Study for Austria," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 3, pages 34–52.
  26. Marcela Eslava & Oskar Nupia, 2010. "Political Fragmentation and Government Spending: Bringing Ideological Polarization into the Picture," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 006713, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  27. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/1769 is not listed on IDEAS
  28. Ardagna, Silvia, 2004. "Fiscal stabilizations: When do they work and why," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(5), pages 1047-1074, October.
  29. Csaba, László, 2006. "A stabilitási és növekedési egyezmény új politikai gazdaságtanáról
    [On the new political economy of the Stability and Growth Pact]
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(1), pages 1-30.
  30. Legrenzi, G. & Milas, C., 2004. "Non-linear adjustments in fiscal policy," Working Papers 04/06, Department of Economics, City University London.
  31. Julia Darby & V. Anton Muscatelli & Graeme Roy, . "Fiscal Federalism and Fiscal Consolidation: Evidence from an Event Study," Working Papers 2005_21, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow, revised Jun 2005.
  32. Haizhou Huang & Danyang Xie, 2008. "Fiscal Sustainability and Fiscal Soundness," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 9(2), pages 239-251, November.
  33. Tania Ajam & Janine Aron, 2007. "Fiscal Renaissance in a Democratic South Africa," CSAE Working Paper Series 2007-10, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  34. Sanz, Ismael & Velazquez, Francisco J, 2003. "What do OECD countries cut first at a time of fiscal adjustments? A dynamic panel data approach," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt4j744960, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
  35. Alberto Alesina & Silvia Ardagna & Francesco Trebbi, 2006. "Who adjusts and when? On the political economy of reforms," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2108, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  36. Wolf, Marvin, 2013. "Währungsunionen und Allmendeproblem," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-521, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
  37. Buiter, Willem H & Grafe, Clemens, 2002. "Patching up the Pact: some Suggestions for Enhancing Fiscal Sustainability and Macroeconomic Stability in an Enlarged European Union," CEPR Discussion Papers 3496, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  38. Győrffy, Dóra, 2008. "Költségvetési kiigazítás és növekedés az Európai Unióban. Tanulságok Magyarország számára
    [Budget adjustment and growth in the European Union lessons for Hungary]
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(11), pages 962-986.
  39. Daniel Kanda, 2011. "Modeling Optimal Fiscal Consolidation Paths in a Selection of European Countries," IMF Working Papers 11/164, International Monetary Fund.
  40. Marcela Eslava, 2011. "The Political Economy Of Fiscal Deficits: A Survey," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(4), pages 645-673, 09.
  41. Yoshiyasu Ono, 2011. "The Keynesian Multiplier Effect Reconsidered," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(4), pages 787-794, 06.
  42. Viren, Matti, 2013. "Sensitivity of fiscal-policy effects to policy coordination and business cycle conditions," Research Discussion Papers 11/2013, Bank of Finland.
  43. Sebastian Dellepiane & Niamh Hardiman, 2012. "The New Politics of Austerity: Fiscal Responses to the Economic Crisis in Ireland and Spain," Working Papers 201207, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  44. António Afonso, 2001. "Non-Keynesian Effects of Fiscal Policy in the EU-15," Working Papers Department of Economics 2001/07, ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon.
  45. Allan Drazen & Marcela Eslava, 2006. "Pork Barrel Cycles," NBER Working Papers 12190, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  46. Alesina, Alberto F & Ardagna, Silvia & Perotti, Roberto & Schiantarelli, Fabio, 1999. "Fiscal Policy, Profits and Investment," CEPR Discussion Papers 2250, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  47. Vergne, Clémence, 2009. "Democracy, elections and allocation of public expenditures in developing countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 63-77, March.
  48. Karl Aiginger & Alois Guger, 2005. "The European Socio-Economic Model. Differences to the USA and Changes over Time," WIFO Working Papers 266, WIFO.
  49. Alberto Alesina & Silvia Ardagna & Vincenzo Galasso, 2011. "The Euro and Structural Reforms," Review of Economics and Institutions, Università di Perugia, vol. 2(1).
  50. Shun-ichiro Bessho & Kimiko Terai, 2013. "Fiscal restraints by advisors," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 205-232, August.
  51. Wakerly, Elizabeth C & Elena Loukoianova & Shaun P. Vahey, 2003. "A Real Time Tax Smoothing Based Fiscal Policy Rule," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 215, Royal Economic Society.
  52. Joachim Voth, 2011. "Tightening Tensions: Fiscal Policy and Civil Unrest in Eleven South American Countries, 1937 - 1995," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 612, Central Bank of Chile.
  53. repec:cge:warwcg:84 is not listed on IDEAS
  54. Christina Schneider, 2010. "Fighting with one hand tied behind the back: political budget cycles in the West German states," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 142(1), pages 125-150, January.
  55. Kausik Chaudhuri & Sugato Dasgupta, 2005. "The political determinants of central governments' economic policies in India: an empirical investigation," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(7), pages 957-978.
  56. Antoni Castells & Alejandro Esteller & Maite Vilalta, 2004. "Full Characterisation of the Political Economy of Fiscal Adjustment: Evidence from Spanish Municipalities," Working Papers 2004/3, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
  57. Jérôme Creel & Bruno Ducoudré & Catherine Mathieu & Henri Sterdyniak, 2005. "Doit-on oublier la politique budgétaire ?. Une analyse critique de la nouvelle théorie anti-keynésienne des finances publiques," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 92(1), pages 43-97.
  58. Kausik Chaudhuri & Sugato Dasgupta, 2006. "The political determinants of fiscal policies in the states of India: An empirical investigation," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(4), pages 640-661.
  59. Hans Pitlik, 2004. "Institutionelle Voraussetzungen marktorientierter Reformen der Wirtschaftspolitik," Diskussionspapiere aus dem Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre der Universität Hohenheim 240/2004, Department of Economics, University of Hohenheim, Germany.
  60. Tavares, Jose, 2004. "Does right or left matter? Cabinets, credibility and fiscal adjustments," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(12), pages 2447-2468, December.
  61. Daniele Franco (editor), 2012. "Rules and institutions for sound fiscal policy after the crisis," Workshop and Conferences 11, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  62. Zimmermann, Thomas A., 2010. "The dangerous rise of economic interventionism," MPRA Paper 37262, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  63. Paulo Roberto Arvate & Marcos Felipe Mendes Lopes, 2007. "Institutional Changes, Incentive Schemes And The Decision To Undertake Fiscal Adjustments," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 010, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  64. Győrffy, Dóra, 2007. "Társadalmi bizalom és költségvetési hiány
    [Social confidence and budget deficit]
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(3), pages 274-290.
  65. Sèna Kimm Gnangnon, 2011. "The consequences of Fiscal Episodes in OECD Countries for Aid Supply," Working Papers halshs-00613161, HAL.
  66. Jochen Mierau & Richard Jong-A-Pin & Jakob de Haan, 2007. "Do political variables affect fiscal policy adjustment decisions? New empirical evidence," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 133(3), pages 297-319, December.
  67. Antonio Afonso, 2010. "Expansionary fiscal consolidations in Europe: new evidence," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(2), pages 105-109.
  68. Darby, Julia & Li, Chol-Won & Muscatelli, V. Anton, 2004. "Political uncertainty, public expenditure and growth," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 153-179, March.
  69. Carmignani, Fabrizio, 2008. "The impact of fiscal policy on private consumption and social outcomes in Europe and the CIS," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 575-598, March.
  70. Maria Manuel Pinho, 2008. "The political economy of public spending composition: evidence from a panel of OECD countries," FEP Working Papers 295, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  71. John FitzGerald & Adele Bergin, 2004. "The Stability and Growth Pact: How much Co-ordination?," Papers WP153, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  72. Larch, Martin & Turrini, Alessandro, 2008. "Received wisdom and beyond: Lessons from fiscal consolidations in the EU," MPRA Paper 20604, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  73. Tagkalakis, Athanasios, 2011. "Fiscal adjustments and asset price changes," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 206-223, June.
  74. Robert Lavigne, 2006. "The Institutional and Political Determinants of Fiscal Adjustment," Working Papers 06-1, Bank of Canada.
  75. Jaroslaw Kantorowicz, 2014. "Judges as Fiscal Activists: Can Constitutional Review Shape Public Finance?," DANUBE: Law and Economics Review, European Association Comenius - EACO, issue 2, pages 79-104, June.
  76. Sèna Kimm Gnangnon, 2013. "How do OECD donor countries distribute foreign aid among developing countries during their fiscal episodes?," Working Papers halshs-00786009, HAL.
  77. Athanasios Tagkalakis, 2009. "Fiscal adjustments: do labor and product market institutions matter?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 139(3), pages 389-411, June.
  78. Ellegård, Lina Maria, 2013. "Divided We Fall. Conflicts of Interests Regarding Fiscal Discipline in Municipal Hierarchies," Working Papers 2013:42, Lund University, Department of Economics.
  79. Schaltegger, Christoph A. & Feld, Lars P., 2009. "Are fiscal adjustments less successful in decentralized governments?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 115-123, March.
  80. Pettersson, Per, 1999. "An Empirical Investigation of the Strategic Use of Debt," Working Paper Series 1999:4, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  81. Niamh Hardiman, 2013. "Rethinking the political economy of fiscal consolidation in two recessions in Ireland," Working Papers 201316, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  82. Lambertini, Luisa & Tavares, Jose, 2002. "Exchange Rates and Fiscal Adjustments: Evidence from the OECD and Implications for EMU," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp412, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
  83. Alberto F. Alesina & Silvia Ardagna, 2009. "Large Changes in Fiscal Policy: Taxes Versus Spending," NBER Working Papers 15438, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  84. António Afonso, 2007. "Expansionary fiscal consolidations in Europe: part of conventional wisdom?," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2006 50, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  85. Adi Brender & Allan Drazen, 2005. "How Do Budget Deficits and Economic Growth Affect Reelection Prospects? Evidence from a Large Cross-Section of Countries," NBER Working Papers 11862, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  86. Mackiewicz, Michał & Krajewski, Piotr, 2007. "On The Mechanisms of Achieving Fiscal (Un)Sustainability – The Case of Poland," MPRA Paper 16035, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  87. Qing Wang & Ugo Fasano-Filho, 2001. "Fiscal Expenditure Policy and Non-Oil Economic Growth," IMF Working Papers 01/195, International Monetary Fund.
  88. Bruno Rossmann, 2005. "Ein Rückblick auf die Budgetpolitik Österreichs seit dem Beitritt zur Europäischen Union," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 31(4), pages 493-534.
  89. Paul den Noord, 2011. "Turning the page? EU fiscal consolidation in the wake of the crisis," Empirica, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 19-51, February.
  90. Ignacio Lago-Peñas & Santiago Lago-Peñas, . "Explaining Budgetary Indiscipline: Evidence From Spanish Municipalities," Working Papers 21-04 Classification-JEL , Instituto de Estudios Fiscales.
  91. Skilling, David & Zeckhauser, Richard J., 2002. "Political competition and debt trajectories in Japan and the OECD," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 121-135, April.
  92. Sebastian Dellepiane & Niamh Hardiman, 2012. "Fiscal Politics In Time: Pathways to Fiscal Consolidation, 1980-2012," Working Papers 201228, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  93. Gabriele Giudice & Alessandro Turrini & Jan in’t Veld, 2007. "Non-Keynesian Fiscal Adjustments? A Close Look at Expansionary Fiscal Consolidations in the EU," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 18(5), pages 613-630, November.
  94. Reyes Illera & Carlos Mulas-Granados, 2008. "What makes fiscal consolidations last? A survival analysis of budget cuts in Europe (1960–2004)," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 134(3), pages 147-161, March.
  95. Marika Cioffi & Giovanna Messina & Pietro Tommasino, 2012. "Parties, institutions and political budget cycles at the municipal level," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 885, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  96. Arne Heise, 2002. "Optimal Public Debts, Sustainable Deficits, and Budgetary Consolidation," Empirica, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 319-337, December.
  97. Brender, Adi, 2003. "The effect of fiscal performance on local government election results in Israel: 1989-1998," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 2187-2205, September.
  98. Silvia Fedeli & Francesco Forte & Ottavio Ricchi, 2013. "The long term negative relation between public deficit and structural unemployment: An empirical study of OECD countries (1980-2009)," Working Papers 160, University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Public Economics.
  99. Bruno Rossmann, 1999. "Zur Zusammensetzung und Dauerhaftigkeit der Budgetkonsolidierung der EU-Staaten im Übergang zur Währungsunion," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 25(1), pages 9-40.
  100. Borys, Paweł & Ciżkowicz, Piotr & Rzońca, Andrzej, 2011. "Panel data evidence on non-Keynesian efects of fiscal policy in the EU New Member," MPRA Paper 32696, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  101. Camyar, Isa & Ulupinar, Bahar, 2013. "The partisan policy cycle and firm valuation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 92-111.
  102. Oguro, Kazumasa & Ishida, Ryo, 2012. "The Viability of a Voting System that Allocates Parliamentary Seats According to Life Expectancy: An analysis using OLG models," CIS Discussion paper series 571, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  103. Konishi, Hideki, 2006. "Spending cuts or tax increases? The composition of fiscal adjustments as a signal," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(6), pages 1441-1469, August.
  104. repec:onb:oenbwp:y::i:167:b:1 is not listed on IDEAS
  105. Markus Marterbauer, 2010. "Budget Policy in an Age of Reduced Expectations," WIFO Working Papers 366, WIFO.
  106. Gnangnon, Sèna Kimm, 2014. "The Effect of Development Aid Unpredictability and Migrants’ Remittances on Fiscal Consolidation in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 168-190.
  107. Markus Marterbauer & Ewald Walterskirchen, 1999. "Macroeconomic Effects of the Policy of Budget Consolidation in the EU," WIFO Monatsberichte (monthly reports), WIFO, vol. 72(4), pages 305-314, April.
  108. Borys, Paweł & Ciżkowicz, Piotr & Rzońca, Andrzej, 2013. "Panel data evidence on effects of fiscal impulses in the EU New Member States," MPRA Paper 48243, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  109. Arne Heise, 2002. "Zur ökonomischen Sinnhaftigkeit von 'Null-Defiziten'," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 28(3), pages 291-308.
  110. De Bandt, Olivier & Mongelli, Francesco Paolo, 2000. "Convergence of fiscal policies in the euro area," Working Paper Series 0020, European Central Bank.
  111. Benczes, István, 2008. "A költségvetési hiány politikai gazdaságtana
    [The political economy of budgetary deficit]
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(3), pages 218-232.