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The Political Cost of Reforms

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  • Gino Gancia

    (CREI and UPF)

  • Alessandra Bonfiglioli

    (Institute for Economic Analysis)

Abstract

This paper formalizes in a fully-rational model the popular idea that politicians perceive an electoral cost in adopting costly reforms with future benefits and reconciles it with the evidence that reformist governments are not punished by voters. To do so, it proposes a model of elections where political ability is ex-ante unknown and investment in reforms is unobservable. On the one hand, elections improve accountability and allow to keep well-performing incumbents. On the other, politicians make too little reforms in an attempt to signal high ability and increase their reappointment probability. Although in a rational expectation equilibrium voters cannot be fooled and hence reelection does not depend on reforms, the strategy of underinvesting in reforms is nonetheless sustained by out-of-equilibrium beliefs. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, uncertainty makes reforms more politically viable and may, under some conditions, increase social welfare. The model is then used to study how political rewards can be set so as to maximize social welfare and the desirability of imposing a one-term limit to governments. The predictions of this theory are consistent with a number of empirical regularities on the determinants of reforms and reelection. They are also consistent with a new stylized fact documented in this paper: economic uncertainty is associated to more reforms in a panel of 20 OECD countries.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Society for Economic Dynamics in its series 2012 Meeting Papers with number 291.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:red:sed012:291

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bonfiglioli, Alessandra & Gancia, Gino A, 2011. "Growth, Selection and Appropriate Contracts," CEPR Discussion Papers 8462, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. repec:cge:warwcg:121 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto & Ugo Troiano, 2012. "Social capital, government expenditures, and growth," Economics Working Papers 1307, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jul 2014.
  4. Ghatak, Maitreesh & Aney, Madhav S & Morelli, Massimo, 2013. "Can Market Failure Cause Political Failure?," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 122, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).

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