The long term negative relation between public deficit and structural unemployment: An empirical study of OECD countries (1980-2009)
AbstractWith the new European fiscal compact, fiscal rules of budget balance over the cycle have been introduced to limit the growth of the debt ratio to GDP. The objection may arise that they would have an adverse effect, especially in the long run on employment and growth. We test the proposition about unemployment by investigating, with a panel of 22 OECD countries (1980-2009), the relationship between Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment, NAIRU, as dependent variable, the underlying net lending government as a percentage of potential GDP (UNLG/pot.GDP), and the general government total receipts as a percentage of GDP, controlling the results with additional variables which may be credited to impact on NAIRU also in the short term. We find that UNLG/pot.GDP and the increase in fiscal burden may be both relevant in increasing the NAIRU in the long run. Thus one can say that, in the long run, high deficits not only do not reduce unemployment but aggravate it, and high tax burdens needed to finance the service of the debt and other public expenditure, under an invariant UNLG/pot.GDP, further increase the NAIRU, even if the inverse relation may also be true. In the short term there is no significant effect of these variables. Results are robust to the presence of cross section correlation. These results suggest that the assert that the constitutional rule of balancing the budget may create unemployment does not find an empirical evidence. They also suggest that further analysis should be carried out to test whether exogenous cause of a high NAIRU may impact on the budgetary deficit, thus making harder to adopt this rule.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Public Economics in its series Working Papers with number 160.
Date of creation: Feb 2013
Date of revision:
NAIRU; fiscal policies indicators; cointegration analysis;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
- E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution
- E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
- H62 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Deficit; Surplus
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-03-09 (All new papers)
- NEP-EEC-2013-03-09 (European Economics)
- NEP-FDG-2013-03-09 (Financial Development & Growth)
- NEP-PBE-2013-03-09 (Public Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Andrea Bassanini & Romain Duval, 2006. "The determinants of unemployment across OECD countries: Reassessing the role of policies and institutions," OECD Economic Studies, OECD Publishing, vol. 2006(1), pages 7-86.
- Andrew Mountford & Harald Uhlig, 2008.
"What are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Shocks?,"
NBER Working Papers
14551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mountford, Andrew & Uhlig, Harald, 2002. "What are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Shocks?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3338, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Mountford, A.W. & Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S., 2002. "What are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Shocks?," Discussion Paper 2002-31, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Andrew Mountford & Harald Uhlig, 2005. "What are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Shocks?," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2005-039, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
- Christopher A. Pissarides & Giovanna Vallanti, 2007.
"The Impact Of Tfp Growth On Steady-State Unemployment,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 48(2), pages 607-640, 05.
- Pissarides, Christopher & Vallanti, Giovanna, 2005. "The Impact of TFP Growth on Steady-State Unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 5002, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Christian Gianella & Isabell Koske & Elena Rusticelli & Olivier Chatal, 2008. "What Drives the NAIRU? Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 649, OECD Publishing.
- Alberto F. Alesina & Silvia Ardagna, 2009.
"Large Changes in Fiscal Policy: Taxes Versus Spending,"
NBER Working Papers
15438, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alberto Alesina & Silvia Ardagna, 2010. "Large Changes in Fiscal Policy: Taxes versus Spending," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 24, pages 35-68 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Romain Bouis & Romain Duval & Fabrice Murtin, 2011. "The Policy and Institutional Drivers of Economic Growth Across OECD and Non-OECD Economies: New Evidence from Growth Regressions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 843, OECD Publishing.
- M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007.
"A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
- Pesaran, M.H., 2003. "A Simple Panel Unit Root Test in the Presence of Cross Section Dependence," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0346, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Christina D. Romer & David H. Romer, 2007.
"The Macroeconomic Effects of Tax Changes: Estimates Based on a New Measure of Fiscal Shocks,"
NBER Working Papers
13264, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christina D. Romer & David H. Romer, 2010. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Tax Changes: Estimates Based on a New Measure of Fiscal Shocks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(3), pages 763-801, June.
- M. Hashem Pesaran, 2004.
"Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
1331, CESifo Group Munich.
- M. Hashem Pesaran, 2006. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(4), pages 967-1012, 07.
- Hausman, Jerry A, 1978.
"Specification Tests in Econometrics,"
Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
- Hamilton, James D & Flavin, Marjorie A, 1986.
"On the Limitations of Government Borrowing: A Framework for EmpiricalTesting,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 76(4), pages 808-19, September.
- James D. Hamilton & Marjorie A. Flavin, 1985. "On the Limitations of Government Borrowing: A Framework for Empirical Testing," NBER Working Papers 1632, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti & Roberto Perotti & Massimo Rostagno, 2002.
"Electoral Systems And Public Spending,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 117(2), pages 609-657, May.
- Alberto Alesina & Roberto Perotti & José Tavares, 1998. "The Political Economy of Fiscal Adjustments," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(1), pages 197-266.
- C. John McDermott & Robert F. Wescott, 1996.
"An Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Adjustments,"
IMF Staff Papers,
Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 43(4), pages 725-753, December.
- Christopher A. Pissarides, 2000. "Equilibrium Unemployment Theory, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262161877, December.
- Damiaan Persyn & Joakim Westerlund, 2008. "Error-correction–based cointegration tests for panel data," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 8(2), pages 232-241, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Luisa Giuriato).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.