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Spatial Aspects of Forest Management and Non-Timber Forest Product Extraction in Tanzania


  • Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.
  • Lokina, Razack


This paper explores the impact of participatory forest management (PFM) initiatives in Tanzania that have excluded villagers from forests to which they have traditionally, albeit illegally, had access to collect non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Motivated by our fieldwork and using a spatial-temporal model, we focused on the paths of forest degradation and regeneration and villagers’ utility before and after PFM has been introduced. Our paper illustrates a number of key points for policymakers. First, the benefits of PFM tend to be greatest in the first few periods after it is introduced, after which the overall forest quality often declines. Second, villagers may displace their NTFP collection into more distant forests that may have been completely protected by distance alone before PFM was introduced. Third, permitting villagers to collect limited amounts of NTFPs for a fee, or alternatively fining villagers caught collecting illegally from the PFM forest, and returning the fee or fine revenue to the villagers, can improve both forest quality and villagers’ livelihoods.

Suggested Citation

  • Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Lokina, Razack, 2009. "Spatial Aspects of Forest Management and Non-Timber Forest Product Extraction in Tanzania," Discussion Papers dp-09-07-efd, Resources For the Future.
  • Handle: RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-09-07-efd

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gunnar Köhlin & Peter J. Parks, 2001. "Spatial Variability and Disincentives to Harvest: Deforestation and Fuelwood Collection in South Asia," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 77(2), pages 206-218.
    2. Clarke, Harry R. & Reed, William J. & Shrestha, Ram M., 1993. "Optimal enforcement of property rights on developing country forests subject to illegal logging," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 271-293, September.
    3. Nostbakken, Linda, 2006. "Regime switching in a fishery with stochastic stock and price," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 231-241, March.
    4. Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Albers, Heidi J. & Williams, Jeffrey C., 2008. "Spatial and temporal modeling of community non-timber forest extraction," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 234-245, November.
    5. Sanchirico, James N. & Wilen, James E., 2005. "Optimal spatial management of renewable resources: matching policy scope to ecosystem scale," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 23-46, July.
    6. Vance, Colin & Geoghegan, Jacqueline, 2002. "Temporal and spatial modelling of tropical deforestation: a survival analysis linking satellite and household survey data," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 27(3), November.
    7. Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Kajembe, George C., "undated". "Changing Access to Forest Resources in Tanzania," Discussion Papers dp-09-10-efd, Resources For the Future.
    8. Heltberg, Rasmus, 2001. "Determinants and impact of local institutions for common resource management," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(02), pages 183-208, May.
    9. Vance, Colin & Geoghegan, Jacqueline, 2001. "Modeling Tropical Deforestation: A Survival Analysis Linking Satellite And Household Survey Data," 2001 Annual meeting, August 5-8, Chicago, IL 20501, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    10. Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson & Heidi J. Albers & Jeffrey C. Williams, 2005. "Analyzing the Impact of Excluding Rural People from Protected Forests: Spatial Resource Degradation and Rural Welfare," CSAE Working Paper Series 2005-03, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    11. Sanchirico, James N. & Wilen, James E., 1999. "Bioeconomics of Spatial Exploitation in a Patchy Environment," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 129-150, March.
    12. Bluffstone Randall A., 1995. "The Effect of Labor Market Performance on Deforestation in Developing Countries under Open Access: An Example from Rural Nepal," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 42-63, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Albers, Heidi J. & Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z., 2011. "The Trees and the Bees: Using Enforcement and Income Projects to Protect Forests and Rural Livelihoods Through Spatial Joint Production," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 40(3), December.
    2. Arguedas, Carmen & Rousseau, Sandra, 2012. "Learning about compliance under asymmetric information," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 55-73.

    More about this item


    participatory forest management; non-timber forest products; spatial-temporal; modeling; Tanzania;

    JEL classification:

    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • Q23 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Forestry


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