IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Prior achievement is the indicator of use of school resources and the predictor of academic achievement in Punjab (Pakistan)


  • Dahar, Muhammad Arshad
  • Dahar, Rashida Ahmad
  • Dahar, Riffat Tahira


This study investigates whether prior achievement or the prior ability is the important indicator of the use of school resource inputs and the predictor of academic achievement at secondary level in Pakistan. Prior achievement is the cumulative function of all the current and prior resource inputs i.e. family inputs, SES, peers' effect and SRIs. Prior achievement is an indicator of learning or an aptitude to learn and use the SRIs effectively. Population of the study comprised all secondary and higher secondary schools and secondary students in Punjab. Overall, a total of 288 schools, and then 20 students from each school were randomly selected as the sample of the study. The longitudinal data of academic achievement in the form of aggregate marks of the annual examinations of the Classes VI, VII, & VIII as prior achievement and that of the Class X as academic achievement of the same students through “Result Sheet”. The data were summarized at school level and then analyzed collectively. Pearson correlation was used to find out the relationship (association) of prior achievement with the academic achievement. Furthermore, Stepwise Regression analysis with linear function was used to find out the differential impact (causal-relationship) of prior achievement on the academic achievement. The results of the study show that the prior achievement has a significant differential impact of prior achievement on academic achievement. It is derived that prior achievement plays a major role in producing academic achievement and that it is a very important predictor of academic achievement. The policy implication of this study is that is that students with the standard prior achievement must be ensured as the admission criteria at secondary stage. Likewise, this policy must be implied to all the levels of education.

Suggested Citation

  • Dahar, Muhammad Arshad & Dahar, Rashida Ahmad & Dahar, Riffat Tahira, 2009. "Prior achievement is the indicator of use of school resources and the predictor of academic achievement in Punjab (Pakistan)," MPRA Paper 28323, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:28323

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dahar, Muhammad Arshad & Dahar, Riffat Tahira & Dahar, Rashida Ahmad, 2009. "Impact of the prior school environment on academic achievement of students at the secondary stage in Punjab (Pakistan)," MPRA Paper 28359, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    prior achievement; resource inputs; predictor; relationship (association); differential impact (causal-relationship); academic achievement;

    JEL classification:

    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:28323. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.