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Impact of the per pupil expenditures on the student achievement at secondary stage in Punjab (Pakistan)


  • Dahar, Muhammad Arshad
  • Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar
  • Dahar, Rashida Ahmad


The paper investigates the impact of per pupil expenditures on the student achievement at secondary stage in rural and urban areas in Punjab. The researchers use the data of per pupil expenditure, pupil teacher ratio and student achievement at secondary stage. The study finds that impact of per pupil expenditures on the student achievement is insignificant. However, the direction of relationship is negative in the case of rural arts, urban arts and urban science students but it is positive for rural science students. Resultantly, there is a lower level of student achievement. The study concludes that there are many discrepancies in the allocation and utilization of funds. The major policy implication of the study is that if funds are equalized or properly allocated and effectively utilized, the student achievement and the quality of education may be improved.

Suggested Citation

  • Dahar, Muhammad Arshad & Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar & Dahar, Rashida Ahmad, 2009. "Impact of the per pupil expenditures on the student achievement at secondary stage in Punjab (Pakistan)," MPRA Paper 19844, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:19844

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Eide, Eric & Showalter, Mark H., 1998. "The effect of school quality on student performance: A quantile regression approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 345-350, March.
    2. Naeem Akram & Ihtsham ul Haq Padda & Mohammad Khan, 2008. "The Long Term Impact of Health on Economic Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 487-500.
    3. Jonathan Guryan, 2001. "Does Money Matter? Regression-Discontinuity Estimates from Education Finance Reform in Massachusetts," NBER Working Papers 8269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    More about this item


    Per pupil expenditure (PPE); pupil teacher ratio (PTR); development expenditures; recurring expenditures; operating expenditures; prior achievement; student achievement;

    JEL classification:

    • L23 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Organization of Production


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