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Where does regulation hurt? Evidence from new businesses across countries

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  • Silvia Ardagna
  • Annamaria Lusardi

Abstract

We use two micro data sets that collect harmonized data across countries to investigate the effects of regulation on new businesses. We are able to distinguish between two types of entrepreneurs: those who start a business to pursue a business opportunity and those who start a business because they could not find better work. Irrespective of the measure of regulation we use, we always find a detrimental effect of regulation on entrepreneurship. While women are overall less likely to start new businesses, in more regulated countries women are pulled into entrepreneurship not to pursue a business opportunity but because they could not find better work. Moreover, regulation dampens the effects of self-assessed business skills and social networks. In more regulated economies, those with better business skills and those who know other entrepreneurs are less likely to become entrepreneurs to pursue a business opportunity. Tighter regulation also exacerbates fear of failure, further discouraging business start-up. All our estimates point to a negative effect of regulation.

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  • Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2009. "Where does regulation hurt? Evidence from new businesses across countries," NBER Working Papers 14747, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14747
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    Cited by:

    1. André van Stel & David Storey & Chantal Hartog, 2010. "Institutions and Entrepreneurship: The Role of The Rule of Law," Scales Research Reports H201003, EIM Business and Policy Research.
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    3. John A. Dove, 2023. "One size fits all? The differential impact of federal regulation on early-stage entrepreneurial activity across US states," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 63(1), pages 57-73, April.
    4. Albiol, Judit, 2014. "The Significance of Business Exit for Future Entrepreneurial Activity," Working Papers 2072/238221, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    5. William R. Kerr & Ramana Nanda, 2010. "Banking Deregulations, Financing Constraints, and Firm Entry Size," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 8(2-3), pages 582-593, 04-05.
    6. Laura Alfaro & Anusha Chari, 2014. "Deregulation, Misallocation, and Size: Evidence from India," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(4), pages 897-936.
    7. Marco Da Rin & Marina Di Giacomo & Alessandro Sembenelli, 2010. "Corporate Taxation and the Size of New Firms: Evidence from Europe," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 8(2-3), pages 606-616, 04-05.
    8. Davud Rostam-Afschar, 2014. "Entry regulation and entrepreneurship: a natural experiment in German craftsmanship," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 1067-1101, November.
    9. Sunny Li Sun & Weilei (Stone) Shi & David Ahlstrom & Li (Rachel) Tian, 2020. "Understanding institutions and entrepreneurship: The microfoundations lens and emerging economies," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 957-979, December.
    10. Ant Bozkaya & William R. Kerr, 2009. "Labor Regulations and European Private Equity," Working Papers CEB 09-055.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    11. OKAMURO, Hiroyuki & 岡室, 博之 & IKEUCHI, Kenta & MATSUDA, Naoko & TSUCHIYA, Ryuichiro, 2017. "Who wishes to be an entrepreneur and who prepares for that? : Evidence from statistical micro data in Japan over 30 years," CCES Discussion Paper Series 65, Center for Research on Contemporary Economic Systems, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.
    12. Fossen, Frank M. & Büttner, Tobias J.M., 2013. "The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 66-84.
    13. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2010. "Heterogeneity in the Effect of Regulation on Entrepreneurship and Entry Size," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 8(2-3), pages 594-605, 04-05.
    14. Ant Bozkaya & William R. Kerr, 2014. "Labor Regulations and European Venture Capital," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(4), pages 776-810, December.
    15. Matteo Bobba & Luca Flabbi & Santiago Levy, 2022. "Labor Market Search, Informality, And Schooling Investments," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 63(1), pages 211-259, February.
    16. Ionela DUMITRU & Ionut DUMITRU, 2017. "Entrepreneurship Determinants in Central and Eastern Europe. The Case of Romania," ECONOMIC COMPUTATION AND ECONOMIC CYBERNETICS STUDIES AND RESEARCH, Faculty of Economic Cybernetics, Statistics and Informatics, vol. 51(1), pages 187-203.
    17. Ant Bozkaya & William R. Kerr, 2014. "Labor Regulations and European Venture Capital," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(4), pages 776-810, December.
    18. David B. Audretsch & Maksim Belitski & Sameeksha Desai, 2019. "National Business Regulations and City Entrepreneurship in Europe: A Multilevel Nested Analysis," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 43(6), pages 1148-1165, November.
    19. Girum Abebe & Tigabu Degu & Gebrehiwot Ageba, 2018. "What drives productivity change in the manufacturing sector? Evidence from the metalworking industry in Ethiopia," Working Papers 020, Policy Studies Institute.
    20. José Ernesto Amorós & Pekka Stenholm, 2013. "The Influence of the Quality of Government Institutions on Entrepreneurial Motivation: Exploring the Variance across Countries," Working Papers 1401, Departament Empresa, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, revised Dec 2013.
    21. Trubnikov, Dmitrii, 2021. "What entrepreneurship is really “productive”? An alternative view on Baumol's typology," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 16(C).
    22. Albiol, Judit, 2012. "Business Exits entail greater future levels of entrepreneurship? An empirical analysis at country level," Working Papers 2072/211754, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.

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