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Explaining female and male entrepreneurship across 29 countries

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  • André van Stel
  • Roy Thurik
  • Ingrid Verheul

Abstract

The present study aims at explaining female and male entrepreneurship from a country perspective. Explanatory variables are derived from three streams of literature, including the literature on the determinants of entrepreneurship in general, on female labor force participation, and on female entrepreneurship. To test hypotheses we make use of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, including total entrepreneurial activity rates for both women and men for 2002, as well as a range of possible determinants from standardized national statistics. We find that female and male entrepreneurship are largely influenced by the same factors in the same direction. A remarkable exception is life satisfaction for which we find a positive impact on female entrepreneurship and no impact on male entrepreneurship. The paper pays explicit attention to several methodological aspects of investigating determinants of female and male entrepreneurship. An updated version of this Scales Paper can be found under number N200510.

Suggested Citation

  • André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul, 2004. "Explaining female and male entrepreneurship across 29 countries," Scales Research Reports N200403, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:eim:papers:n200403
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    Cited by:

    1. Saul Estrin & Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2011. "Institutions and female entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 397-415, November.
    2. Carolina Ortiz Riaga & Yenni Viviana Duque Orozco & David Camargo Mayorga, 2008. "Una revisión a la investigación en emprendimiento femenino," REVISTA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS ECONÓMICAS, UNIVERSIDAD MILITAR NUEVA GRANADA, June.
    3. Sabarwal, Shwetlena & Terrell, Katherine, 2008. "Does Gender Matter for Firm Performance? Evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," IZA Discussion Papers 3758, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Hannu Tervo & Mika Haapanen, 2006. "Gender Differences in Self-Employment in Finnish Regions," ERSA conference papers ersa06p380, European Regional Science Association.
    5. Grilo, I. & Thurik, A.R., 2004. "Determinants Of Entrepreneurship In Europe," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2004-106-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    6. Elena Bardasi & Shwetlena Sabarwal & Katherine Terrell, 2011. "How do female entrepreneurs perform? Evidence from three developing regions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 417-441, November.
    7. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2005. "Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-24, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    8. Furdas, Marina & Kohn, Karsten, 2010. "What's the Difference?! Gender, Personality, and the Propensity to Start a Business," IZA Discussion Papers 4778, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Subhash C. Kundu & Sunita Rani, 2007. "Personality and Attitudes of Indian Young Female Workforce: Entrepreneurial Orientation by Education and Regions," Managing Global Transitions, University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper, vol. 5(3), pages 229-252.
    10. Lorraine Uhlaner & Roy Thurik, 2007. "Postmaterialism influencing total entrepreneurial activity across nations," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 161-185, April.
    11. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2009. "Where does regulation hurt? Evidence from new businesses across countries," NBER Working Papers 14747, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Axel Dreher & Martin Gassebner, 2007. "Greasing the Wheels of Entrepreneurship? The Impact of Regulations and Corruption on Firm Entry," KOF Working papers 07-166, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    13. Aidis, Ruta & Estrin, Saul & Mickiewicz, Tomasz, 2008. "Institutions and entrepreneurship development in Russia: A comparative perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 656-672, November.
    14. Isabel Grilo & Roy Thurik, 2005. "Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-29, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    15. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & André van Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2003. "Uncertainty Avoidance and the Rate of Business Ownership across 22 OECD Countries, 1976-2000," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-089/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 01 Sep 2004.
    16. Ruta Aidis & Saul Estrin & Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2012. "Size matters: entrepreneurial entry and government," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 119-139, July.
    17. Frank H. Stephen & David Urbano & Stefan van Hemmen, 2005. "The impact of institutions on entrepreneurial activity," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(7), pages 413-419.
    18. Neira, Isabel & Portela, Marta & Cancelo, Maite Cancelo & Calvo, Nuria, 2013. "Social and human capital as determining factors of entrepreneurship in the Spanish Regions," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 26, pages 115-139.
    19. Ruta Aidis & Saul Estrin, 2006. "Institutions, Networks and Entrepreneurship Development in Russia: An Exploration," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp833, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.

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