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Determinants of entrepreneurship in Europe

  • Isabel Grilo
  • Roy Thurik

    ()

This paper presents an Eclectic Framework explaining (developments in and determinants of) entrepreneurship incorporating different streams of literature and spanning different disciplines. The Eclectic Framework integrates factors shaping the demand for entrepreneurship on the one hand, with those influencing the supply of entrepreneurs on the other hand. It also creates insight into the role of public policy identifying the channels through which the demand or the supply of entrepreneurship can be shifted. In its empirical part the present paper estimates a multinomial logit using survey data from the 15 EU member states, Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein and the US to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. Other than demographic variables, the set of explanatory variables used includes the perception by respondents of administrative complexities, of availability of financial support, a rough measure of risk tolerance, the respondents' preference for self -employment and country specific effects. The most striking result is that the perception of lack of financial support has no discriminative effect across the various levels of entrepreneurial engagement.

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Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group in its series Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy with number 2004-30.

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Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2004-30
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  5. David G. Blanchflower, 2000. "Self-Employment in OECD Countries," NBER Working Papers 7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Lorraine Uhlaner & Roy Thurik, 2004. "Post-Materialism: A Cultural Factor Influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activ-ity Across Nations," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-07, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  7. De Wit, G. & Van Winden, F., 1988. "An M-Sector, N-Group Behavioral Model Of Self-Employment," Papers 89.01, NEUHUYS - RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM.
  8. Audretsch, David B. & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André J. & Thurik, A. Roy, 2000. "Impeded industrial restructuring : the growth penalty," HWWA Discussion Papers 114, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  9. Martin A. Carree & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "The Life Cycle of the U.S. Tire Industry," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 254-278, July.
  10. David Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 0000. "Sources of Growth," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 97-109/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  11. Ingrid Verheul & Andre van Stel & Roy Thurik, 2004. "Explaining female and male entrepreneurship across 29 countries," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-08, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  12. Audretsch, David B, et al, 2002. "Impeded Industrial Restructuring: The Growth Penalty," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 81-97.
  13. David Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 0000. "Sources of Growth," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 97-109/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  14. Steven J. Davis & Magnus Henrekson, 1997. "Explaining National Differences in the Size and Industry Distribution of Employment," NBER Working Papers 6246, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Blanchflower, D.G. & Oswald, A., 1991. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Economics Series Working Papers 99125, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  16. D.B. Audretsch & M.A. Carree & A.R. Thurik, 2001. "Does Entrepreneurship reduce Unemployment?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-074/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Oct 2008.
  17. Blanchflower, David G & Meyer, Bruce D, 1994. " A Longitudinal Analysis of the Young Self-Employed in Australia and the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 1-19, February.
  18. Blau, David M, 1987. "A Time-Series Analysis of Self-employment in the United State," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 445-67, June.
  19. Riding, Allan L. & Swift, Catherine S., 1990. "Women business owners and terms of credit: Some empirical findings of the Canadian experience," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(5), pages 327-340, September.
  20. Birley, Sue & Westhead, Paul, 1994. "A taxonomy of business start-up reasons and their impact on firm growth and size," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-31, January.
  21. Bosma, N. & van Praag, M. & de Wit, G., 2000. "Determinants of Successful Entrepreneurship," Papers 0002/e, NEUHUYS - RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM.
  22. Murphy, Kevin M & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1991. "The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(2), pages 503-30, May.
  23. Du Rietz, Anita & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000. " Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 1-10, February.
  24. David B. Audretsch & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "Capitalism and democracy in the 21st Century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 17-34.
  25. Acemoglu, Daron, 1995. "Reward structures and the allocation of talent," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 17-33, January.
  26. D.B. Audretsch & M.A. Carree & A.J. van Stel & A.R. Thurik, 2000. "Impeded Industrial Restructuring: The Growth Penalty," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-095/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  27. S. Baranzoni & P. Bianchi & L. Lambertini, 2000. "Market Structure," Working Papers 368, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  28. de Wit, Gerrit, 1993. " Models of Self-Employment in a Competitive Market," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(4), pages 367-97, December.
  29. Jovanovic, B., 1993. "The Diversification of Production," Working Papers 93-11, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  30. Borooah, Vani K & Hart, Mark, 1999. " Factors Affecting Self-Employment among Indian and Black Caribbean Men in Britain," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 111-29, September.
  31. Niels G. Noorderhaven & Sander Wennekers & Geert Hofstede & A. Roy Thurik & Ralph E. Wildeman, 1999. "Self-Employment out of Dissatisfaction: An International Study," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-089/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  32. D.B. Audretsch & M.A. Carree & A.J. van Stel & A.R. Thurik, 2000. "Impeded Industrial Restructuring: The Growth Penalty," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-095/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  33. Van Praag, C Mirjam & Van Ophem, Hans, 1995. "Determinants of Willingness and Opportunity to Start as an Entrepreneur," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(4), pages 513-40.
  34. Audretsch, D.B. & Thurik, A.R., 1998. "The Knowledge Society, Entrepreneurship and Unemployment," Papers 9801/e, NEUHUYS - RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM.
  35. Niels G. Noorderhaven & Sander Wennekers & Geert Hofstede & A. Roy Thurik & Ralph E. Wildeman, 1999. "Self-Employment out of Dissatisfaction: An International Study," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-089/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  36. Isobel van der Kuip & Ingrid Verheul, 2003. "Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities: the Role of Initial Education," Scales Research Reports N200311, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  37. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Niels Noorderhaven, 2003. "Self-employment across 15 European countries: the role of dissatisfaction," Scales Research Reports N200223, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  38. Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 2000. "Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 603-628, September.
  39. Parker, Simon C, 1996. "A Time Series Model of Self-Employment under Uncertainty," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(251), pages 459-75, August.
  40. Teece, David J, 1993. "The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism: Perspectives on Alfred Chandler's Scale and Scope," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(1), pages 199-225, March.
  41. Roy Thurik, 2003. "Entrepreneurship and Unemployment in the UK," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 50(3), pages 264-290, 08.
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