Explaining female and male entrepreneurship across 29 countries
The present study aims at explaining female and male entrepreneurship from a country perspective. Explanatory variables are derived from three streams of literature, including the literature on the determinants of entrepreneurship in general, on female labor force participation, and on female entrepreneurship. To test hypotheses we make use of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, including total entrepreneurial activity rates for both women and men for 2002, as well as a range of possible determinants from standardized national statistics. We find that female and male entrepreneurship are largely influenced by the same factors in the same direction. A remarkable exception is life satisfaction for which we find a positive impact on female entrepreneurship and no impact on male entrepreneurship. The paper pays explicit attention to several methodological aspects of investigating determinants of female and male entrepreneurship.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2004|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Kahlaische Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena|
Phone: +49-3641-68 65
Fax: +49-3641-68 69 90
Web page: http://www.econ.mpg.de/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Web: http://www.econ.mpg.de/english/research/EGP/discuss.php Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fischer, Eileen M. & Reuber, A. Rebecca & Dyke, Lorraine S., 1993. "A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 151-168, March.
- Roy Thurik & Lorraine Uhlaner & Jan Hutjes, 2002.
"Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations,"
Scales Research Reports
H200202, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Uhlaner, L.M. & Thurik, A.R. & Hutjes, J., 2002. "Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2002-62-STR, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Buttner, E. Holly & Rosen, Benson, 1989. "Funding new business ventures: Are decision makers biased against women entrepreneurs?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 249-261, July.
- Robinson, Peter B. & Sexton, Edwin A., 1994. "The effect of education and experience on self-employment success," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 141-156, March.
- Kourilsky, Marilyn L. & Walstad, William B., 1998. "Entrepreneurship and female youth: knowledge, attitudes, gender differences, and educational practices," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 77-88, January.
- Carter, Nancy M. & Williams, Mary & Reynolds, Paul D., 1997. "Discontinuance among new firms in retail: The influence of initial resources, strategy, and gender," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 125-145, March.
- Shane, Scott, 1993. "Cultural influences on national rates of innovation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 59-73, January.
- Pekka Ilmakunnas & Vesa Kanniainen & Uki Lammi, "undated".
"Entrepreneurship, Economic Risks, and Risk-Insurance in the Welfare State,"
EPRU Working Paper Series
99-03, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
- Ilmakunnas, P. & Kanniainen, V. & Lammi, U., 1999. "Entrepreneurship, Economic Risks, and Risk-Insurance in the Welfare State," University of Helsinki, Department of Economics 453, Department of Economics.
- Isobel van der Kuip & Ingrid Verheul, 2003. "Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities: the Role of Initial Education," Scales Research Reports N200311, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- André van Stel & Gerrit de Wit & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Paul D. Reynolds, 2003. "Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries," Scales Research Reports N200301, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Etzioni, Amitai, 1987. "Entrepreneurship, adaptation and legitimation : A macro-behavioral perspective," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 175-189, June.
- Borooah, Vani K & Hart, Mark, 1999. "Factors Affecting Self-Employment among Indian and Black Caribbean Men in Britain," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 111-129, September.
- Jacob Mincer, 1984.
"Inter-Country Comparisons of Labor Force Trends and of Related Developments: An Overview,"
NBER Working Papers
1438, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mincer, Jacob, 1985. "Intercountry Comparisons of Labor Force Trends and of Related Developments: An Overview," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 1-32, January.
- Baum, J. Robert & Olian, Judy D. & Erez, Miriam & Schnell, Eugene R. & Smith, Ken G. & Sims, Henry P. & Scully, Judith S. & Smith, Ken A., 1993. "Nationality and work role interactions: A cultural contrast of Israeli and U.S. entrepreneurs' versus managers' needs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(6), pages 499-512, November.
- Roy Thurik, 2003. "Entrepreneurship and Unemployment in the UK," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 50(3), pages 264-290, 08.
- Simon C. Parker, 2003. "Does Tax Evasion Affect Occupational Choice?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(3), pages 379-394, 07.
- Wim Zwinkels & Gerrit de Wit & Niels Bosma & Sander Wennekers, 2000.
"Modelling Business Ownership in the Netherlands,"
Scales Research Reports
H199911, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Scheinberg, Sari, 1992. "Elitists, risk-takers, and rugged individualists? An exploratory analysis of cultural differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 115-135, March.
- Gustafsson, Siv & Jacobsson, Roger, 1985. "Trends in Female Labor Force Participation in Sweden," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 256-274, January.
- McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C., 1992. "More like each other than anyone else? A cross-cultural study of entrepreneurial perceptions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 419-429, September.
- Parker, Simon C, 1996. "A Time Series Model of Self-Employment under Uncertainty," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(251), pages 459-475, August.
- Davidsson, Per & Honig, Benson, 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-331, May.
- Schettkat, Ronald & Yocarini, Lara, 2001. "Education Driving the Rise in Dutch Female Employment: Explanations for the Increase in Part-time Work and Female Employment in the Netherlands, Contrasted with Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 407, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Shane, Scott & Kolvereid, Lars & Westhead, Paul, 1991. "An exploratory examination of the reasons leading to new firm formation across country and gender," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 6(6), pages 431-446, November.
- Simon C. Parker & Martin T. Robson, 2004. "Explaining International Variations in Self-Employment: Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 287-301, October.
- Schultz, T Paul, 1990.
"Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective,"
Economic Development and Cultural Change,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 457-488, April.
- Schultz, T. Paul, 1989. "Women's changing participation in the labor force : a world perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 272, The World Bank.
- Schultz, T.P., 1989. "Women'S Changing Participation In The Labor Force: A World Perspective," Papers 571, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Robert Cressy, 2002. "Introduction: Funding Gaps," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 1-16, February.
- S. Illeris & G. Akehurst, 2002. "Introduction," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(1), pages 1-3, January.
- Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 2000. "Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 603-628, September.
- Riding, Allan L. & Swift, Catherine S., 1990. "Women business owners and terms of credit: Some empirical findings of the Canadian experience," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(5), pages 327-340, September.
- Ingrid Verheul, 2003. "Commitment or control?," Scales Research Reports N200306, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
- André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Niels Noorderhaven, 2003. "Self-employment across 15 European countries: the role of dissatisfaction," Scales Research Reports N200223, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Mary T. Coleman & John Pencavel, 1993. "Trends in Market Work Behavior of Women since 1940," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 46(4), pages 653-676, July.
- Shane, Scott A., 1992. "Why do some societies invent more than others?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 29-46, January.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Johansson, Dan, 1999. "Institutional Effects on the Evolution of the Size Distribution of Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 11-23, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2004-08. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kerstin SchÃ¼ck)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.