IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level

  • Ingrid Verheul
  • Andre van Stel

    ()

  • Roy Thurik

    ()

Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for 29 countries this study investigates the (differential) impact of several factors on female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. These factors are derived from three streams of literature, including that on entrepreneurship in general, on female labor force participation and on female entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the methodological aspects of investigating (female) entrepreneurship by distinguishing between two measures of female entrepreneurship: the number of female entrepreneurs and the share of women in the total number of entrepreneurs. The first measure is used to investigate whether variables have an impact on entrepreneurship in general (influencing both the number of female and male entrepreneurs). The second measure is used to investigate whether factors have a differential relative impact on female and male entrepreneurship, i.e., whether they influence the diversity or gender composition of entrepreneurship. Findings indicate that - by and large - female and male entrepreneurial activity rates are influenced by the same factors and in the same direction. However, for some factors (e.g., unemployment, life satisfaction) we find a differential impact on female and male entrepreneurship. The present study also shows that the factors influencing the number of female entrepreneurs may be different from those influencing the share of female entrepreneurs. In this light it is important that governments are aware of what they want to accomplish (i.e., do they want to stimulate the number of female entrepreneurs or the gender composition of entrepreneurship) to be able to select appropriate policy measures.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: ftp://papers.econ.mpg.de/egp/discussionpapers/2005-39.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group in its series Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy with number 2005-39.

as
in new window

Length: 52 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2005-39
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Kahlaische Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena

Phone: +49-3641-68 65
Fax: +49-3641-68 69 90
Web page: http://www.econ.mpg.de/

More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Web: http://www.econ.mpg.de/english/research/EGP/discuss.php Email:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Henrekson, Magnus & Johansson, Dan, 1998. "Institutional Effects on the Evolution of the Size Distribution of Firms," Working Paper Series 497, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  2. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & David Audretsch & Martin Carree, 2005. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," Scales Research Reports N200504, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  3. Sander Wennekers & André Stel & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2008. "Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 325-325, March.
  4. Robert E. Lucas Jr., 1978. "On the Size Distribution of Business Firms," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 508-523, Autumn.
  5. Schultz, T. Paul, 1989. "Women's changing participation in the labor force : a world perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 272, The World Bank.
  6. Smallbone, David & Welter, Friederike, 2001. "The Distinctiveness of Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 249-62, June.
  7. Sander Wennekers & Andre van Stel & Niels Noorderhaven & Roy Thurik, 2004. "The Role Of Dissatisfaction And Per Capita Income In Explaining Self-Employment Across 15 European Countries," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-11, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  8. Can Erutku & Luc Vallée, 1997. "Business start-ups in today's Poland:who and how?," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 113-126, January.
  9. Mincer, Jacob, 1985. "Intercountry Comparisons of Labor Force Trends and of Related Developments: An Overview," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S1-32, January.
  10. Uhlaner, L.M. & Thurik, A.R. & Hutjes, J., 2002. "Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2002-62-STR, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  11. David G. Blanchflower, 2004. "Self-Employment: More may not be better," NBER Working Papers 10286, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Lorraine Uhlaner, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and economic performance: a macro perspective," Scales Research Reports N200220, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  13. Shane, Scott & Kolvereid, Lars & Westhead, Paul, 1991. "An exploratory examination of the reasons leading to new firm formation across country and gender," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 6(6), pages 431-446, November.
  14. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006. "Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments," Scales Research Reports N200514, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  15. Carter, Nancy M. & Williams, Mary & Reynolds, Paul D., 1997. "Discontinuance among new firms in retail: The influence of initial resources, strategy, and gender," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 125-145, March.
  16. Baum, J. Robert & Olian, Judy D. & Erez, Miriam & Schnell, Eugene R. & Smith, Ken G. & Sims, Henry P. & Scully, Judith S. & Smith, Ken A., 1993. "Nationality and work role interactions: A cultural contrast of Israeli and U.S. entrepreneurs' versus managers' needs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(6), pages 499-512, November.
  17. Bleaney, Michael & Nishiyama, Akira, 2002. "Explaining Growth: A Contest between Models," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 43-56, March.
  18. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Scheinberg, Sari, 1992. "Elitists, risk-takers, and rugged individualists? An exploratory analysis of cultural differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 115-135, March.
  19. Isobel van der Kuip & Ingrid Verheul, 2003. "Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities: the Role of Initial Education," Scales Research Reports N200311, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  20. Riding, Allan L. & Swift, Catherine S., 1990. "Women business owners and terms of credit: Some empirical findings of the Canadian experience," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(5), pages 327-340, September.
  21. Gustafsson, Siv & Jacobsson, Roger, 1985. "Trends in Female Labor Force Participation in Sweden," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S256-74, January.
  22. Ingrid Verheul, 2003. "Commitment or control?," Scales Research Reports N200306, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  23. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: the roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  24. Jacobsson, Staffan & Oskarsson, Christer & Philipson, Joakim, 1996. "Indicators of technological activities -- comparing educational, patent and R & D statistics in the case of Sweden," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 573-585, June.
  25. Fischer, Eileen M. & Reuber, A. Rebecca & Dyke, Lorraine S., 1993. "A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 151-168, March.
  26. Robert Cressy, 2002. "Introduction: Funding Gaps," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages F1-F16, February.
  27. Lin, Zhengxi & Picot, Garnett & Compton, Janice, 2000. "The Entry and Exit Dynamics of Self-Employment in Canada," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 105-25, September.
  28. Frederic Delmar & Per Davidsson, 2000. "Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 1-23, January.
  29. Shane, Scott, 1993. "Cultural influences on national rates of innovation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 59-73, January.
  30. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006. "Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union," Scales Research Reports N200515, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  31. Etzioni, Amitai, 1987. "Entrepreneurship, adaptation and legitimation : A macro-behavioral perspective," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 175-189, June.
  32. Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, November.
  33. Buttner, E. Holly & Rosen, Benson, 1989. "Funding new business ventures: Are decision makers biased against women entrepreneurs?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 249-261, July.
  34. Shane, Scott A., 1992. "Why do some societies invent more than others?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 29-46, January.
  35. S. Illeris & G. Akehurst, 2002. "Introduction," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(1), pages 1-3, January.
  36. Chittenden, Francis & Hall, Graham & Hutchinson, Patrick, 1996. "Small Firm Growth, Access to Capital Markets and Financial Structure: Review of Issues and an Empirical Investigation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 59-67, February.
  37. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-45, June.
  38. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C., 1992. "More like each other than anyone else? A cross-cultural study of entrepreneurial perceptions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 419-429, September.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2005-39. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kerstin Schück)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.