IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A Socio-Economic Perspective on Women Entrepreneurs: Evidence from Turkey


  • Meltem Ince


Within the context of globalization where women’s labour force participation and employment rates have grown all over the world where as Turkey differs from most countries with no increase in the growth women’s labor force participation. This situation is associated with a low demand for female labour as well as with socio-cultural factors limiting the supply of female labour. Women entrepreneurs in Turkey have problems in various common problems like social and cultural surroundings, difficulties in finance, insufficient education and too much burden as family responsibilities at home. It is observed that the most women entrepreneurs focused on service sector because of their education, managerial experience and risk tolerance. This paper is a review article that highlights some the key differences between male and female entrepreneurs and also examines gender discrimination in the Turkish labour market. A critical evaluation of the literature revealed that female entrepreneurs often have similar reasons for starting their own businesses. Special attention is given here to theoretical and empirical literature of the gender discrimination in Turkey where traditional and cultural beliefs are still widespread and impact on labour force participation rates and enterpreneurialship.

Suggested Citation

  • Meltem Ince, 2009. "A Socio-Economic Perspective on Women Entrepreneurs: Evidence from Turkey," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 138-166.
  • Handle: RePEc:bas:econst:y:2009:i:4:p:138-166

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Fee access

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gustafsson, Siv & Jacobsson, Roger, 1985. "Trends in Female Labor Force Participation in Sweden," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 256-274, January.
    2. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
    3. Anonymous, 2000. "Editors' Report," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 32(02), August.
    4. Mincer, Jacob, 1985. "Intercountry Comparisons of Labor Force Trends and of Related Developments: An Overview," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 1-32, January.
    5. Muravyev, Alexander & Talavera, Oleksandr & Schäfer, Dorothea, 2009. "Entrepreneurs' gender and financial constraints: Evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 270-286, June.
    6. Aysit Tansel, 2001. "Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey: Time-Series Evidence and Cross-Province Estimates," Working Papers 0124, Economic Research Forum, revised 08 2001.
    7. Galor, Oded & Weil, David N, 1996. "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 374-387, June.
    8. Fischer, Eileen M. & Reuber, A. Rebecca & Dyke, Lorraine S., 1993. "A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 151-168, March.
    9. AfDB AfDB, . "African Development Report 2000," African Development Report, African Development Bank, number 17 edited by Adeleke Oluwole Salami, July-Dece.
    10. Lin, Zhengxi & Picot, Garnett & Compton, Janice, 2000. "The Entry and Exit Dynamics of Self-Employment in Canada," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 105-125, September.
    11. Roy Thurik & Lorraine Uhlaner & Jan Hutjes, 2002. "Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations," Scales Research Reports H200202, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    12. Aysit Tansel, 2001. "Wage Earners, Self Employed and Gender in the Informal Sector in Turkey," Working Papers 0102, Economic Research Forum, revised 01 Nov 2001.
    13. Anonymous, 2000. "Secretary-Treasurer'S Report," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 32(02), August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Lou O'Neil, Mary & Bilgin, Mehmet Huseyin & Lau, Chi Keung Marco, 2012. "The Effects of Religious Beliefs on the Working Decisions of Women: Some Evidence from Turkey," MPRA Paper 46973, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J81 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Working Conditions


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bas:econst:y:2009:i:4:p:138-166. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Diana Dimitrova). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.