Influence of gender and financing on tourist company growth
Research in both the manufacturing and service sectors has shown that companies run by women start with less capital and receive less external financing than firms run by men. This has had particularly adverse effects on the performance of companies managed by women. The present study analyzes start-up capital, financing and growth in terms of revenue and number of employees in 10,170 tourist companies created in Spain since 1996, based on longitudinal data for the period 1996–2006. The aim is to learn whether or not gender is a significant explanatory variable. The findings differ substantially from the results of previous research. In this study, while no start-up capital differences are observed, tourist industry companies run by women are found to out-perform ones run by men in terms of corporate growth. The differences in external financing report earlier were also identified here, however.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Danes, Sharon M. & Stafford, Kathryn & Loy, Johnben Teik-Cheok, 2007. "Family business performance: The effects of gender and management," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(10), pages 1058-1069, October.
- Christina Constantinidis & Annie Cornet & Simona Asandei, 2006. "Financing of women-owned ventures: The impact of gender and other owner -and firm-related variables," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 133-157, January.
- Du Rietz, Anita & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000.
"Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 1-10, February.
- Isabelle Huault & V. Perret & S. Charreire-Petit, 2007. "Management," Post-Print halshs-00337676, HAL.
- Watson, John & Robinson, Sherry, 2003. "Adjusting for risk in comparing the performances of male- and female-controlled SMEs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 773-788, November.
- Pia Arenius & Erkko Autio, 2005. "Financing of small businesses: Are Mars and Venus more alike than different?," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 93-107, October.
- Susan Coleman & Alicia Robb, 2009. "A comparison of new firm financing by gender: evidence from the Kauffman Firm Survey data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 397-411, December.
- Cavalluzzo, Ken S & Cavalluzzo, Linda C, 1998. "Market Structure and Discrimination: The Case of Small Businesses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 771-792, November.
- Robert Fairlie & Alicia Robb, 2009.
"Gender differences in business performance: evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners survey,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 375-395, December.
- Fairlie, Robert W. & Robb, Alicia, 2008. "Gender Differences in Business Performance: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 3718, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Fairlie, Robert & Robb, Alicia M., 2009. "Gender Differences in Business Performance: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt8rv5w116, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Robert Fairlie & Alicia Robb, 2008. "Gender Differences in Business Performance: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey," Working Papers 08-39, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Catherine C. Eckel & Philip J. Grossman, 2002. "Sex Differences and Statistical Stereotyping in Attitudes Toward Financial Risk," Monash Economics Working Papers archive-03, Monash University, Department of Economics.
- Rosa, Peter & Carter, Sara & Hamilton, Daphne, 1996. "Gender as a Determinant of Small Business Performance: Insights from a British Study," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(6), pages 463-478, December.
- Takehiko Yasuda, 2005. "Firm Growth, Size, Age and Behavior in Japanese Manufacturing," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 1-15, December.
- chell Elizabeth & susan baines, 1998. "Does gender affect business ‘performance’? A study of microbusinesses in business services in the UK," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 117-135, January.
- Kon, Y & Storey, D J, 2003. "A Theory of Discouraged Borrowers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 37-49, August.
- Melero, Eduardo, 2011. "Are workplaces with many women in management run differently?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(4), pages 385-393, April.
- Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
- Krishnan, Hema A. & Park, Daewoo, 2005. "A few good women--on top management teams," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 58(12), pages 1712-1720, December.
- Moncrief, William C. & Babakus, Emin & Cravens, David W. & Johnston, Mark W., 2000. "Examining Gender Differences in Field Sales Organizations," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 245-257, September.
- Micheline Goedhuys & Leo Sleuwaegen, 2010.
"High-growth entrepreneurial firms in Africa: a quantile regression approach,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 31-51, January.
- Goedhuys, Micheline & Sleuwaegen, Leo, 2009. "High-Growth Entrepreneurial Firms in Africa: A Quantile Regression Approach," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Dwyer, Sean & Richard, Orlando C. & Chadwick, Ken, 2003. "Gender diversity in management and firm performance: the influence of growth orientation and organizational culture," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 56(12), pages 1009-1019, December.
- Alexander Muravyev & Dorothea Schäfer & Oleksandr Talavera, 2007.
"Entrepreneurs' Gender and Financial Constraints: Evidence from International Data,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
706, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Muravyev, Alexander & Talavera, Oleksandr & Schäfer, Dorothea, 2009. "Entrepreneurs' gender and financial constraints: Evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 270-286, June.
- Alexander Muravyev & Dorothea Schaefer & Oleksandr Talavera, 2008. "Entrepreneurs' gender and financial constraints: evidence from international data," Discussion Papers 11, Kyiv School of Economics.
- Ephraim Chirwa, 2008. "Effects of gender on the performance of micro and small enterprises in Malawi," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(3), pages 347-362.
- Cooper, Arnold C. & Gimeno-Gascon, F. Javier & Woo, Carolyn Y., 1994. "Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 371-395, September.
- José Calvo, 2006. "Testing Gibrat’s Law for Small, Young and Innovating Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 117-123, 03.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:66:y:2013:i:5:p:621-631. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.